NIH 1998 Almanac/Historical Data/
Biographical Sketches of the NIH Deputy Directors
Cassius James Van Slyke, M.D.
Dr. Van Slyke, first deputy director of NIH, served in that position from December
3, 1958, until his retirement on December 1, 1959. Born in Benton, Minn., on
December 1, 1900, he received his M.D. in 1928
from the University of Minnesota and entered the PHS reserve corps that same year.
In 1932 he was commissioned in the regular corps and from 1936 to 1944
pursued a distinguished research career at the PHS Venereal Disease Research Laboratory
in Staten Island, N.Y. In 1944, he was made assistant chief, Venereal Disease
Division, Washington, D.C.
Dr. Van Slyke joined NIH in 1946 as chief of the newly established Research
Grants Office, later renamed the Division of Research Grants, serving there until
named director of NHI on August 1, 1948. He left NHI on November 30, 1952, to serve
as associate director of NIH, a post he held until named NIH deputy director.
He died on April 21, 1966.
David E. Price, M.D.
A native of San Diego, Calif., Dr. Price was born on July 5, 1914. He earned his
medical degree at the University of California
School of Medicine at Berkeley in 1940, and served his internship at the PHS Hospital in San
Francisco. In 1946, he received his doctorate in public health at Johns Hopkins
University School of Hygiene and Public Health.
Following a tour of duty in the Venereal Disease Division, PHS, he was assigned
first to the DRG as assistant to the chief
(1946-47) and then to the NCI as chief of the
Research Grants Branch (1947-48). He returned to DRG in 1948 as chief, a post he held until
he was named NIH associate director for extramural affairs (1950-52).
After a series of key appointments in the Office of the Surgeon General, the Bureau
of Medical Services and the Bureau of State Services, Dr. Price was named
deputy director of NIH on July 1, 1960. Two years later, he was appointed deputy
surgeon general, PHS.
He retired from the service in 1965.
Since his retirement, he has been associated with the Ford Foundation and the American
Public Health Association.
Dr. Price was director of planning of the medical institutions, the Johns
Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Md. He retired on July 1, 1980, from Johns Hopkins.
Stuart M. Sessoms, M.D.
Dr. Sessoms came to NIH in 1953 as a member of the NCI staff. From 1955 to
1957 he was assistant director of the Clinical Center. He was appointed assistant
director, NCI, on January 1, 1958, prior to his appointment in November 1958 as chief
of NCI's Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center.
During this period, Dr. Sessoms served also as NCI associate director (1960),
and associate director for collaborative research (1961) with responsibility for the
institute's Virology Research Resources Branch,
in addition to his duties at the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center.
He became the third NIH deputy director on August 1, 1962, serving in that
capacity until his retirement July 31, 1968. On retirement, he held the rank of
assistant surgeon general (rear admiral) in the PHS.
During his career at NIH, Dr. Sessoms was the recipient of two Meritorious
Service Awards for his accomplishments as head of the Cancer Chemotherapy National
Service Center, and for "outstanding ability
and achievements in the development, operation and staffing" of the Regional
A native of Roseboro, N.C., he was born July 16, 1921. He received his B.S.
in pharmacy at the University of North Carolina in 1943 and his M.D. from the
Medical College of Virginia in 1946.
On retiring after 25 years of government service, Dr. Sessoms joined Duke University.
On Jan. 1, 1976, he was named president of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of
G. Burroughs Mider, M.D.
Dr. Mider, whose career at NIH reaches back to 1939, is well-known on the campus.
Just prior to transferring to the National Library of Medicine, an NIH component, in
1968, Dr. Mider had served for 8 years as NIH director of laboratories and clinics
(1960-68), in which he functioned as deputy director
He first came to NIH as a research fellow, NCI, in 1939. On completing the
fellowship, he became an instructor in pathology
and assistant professor of pathology (1941-44)
at Cornell Medical College. Concurrently, he was an assistant pathologist at New
Then came assignments as associate professor of pathology, University
of Virginia School of Medicine (1944-45) and research associate in surgery and professor
of cancer research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (1945-52).
On returning to NIH in 1952, he became NCI associate director in charge of research.
In 1960 he was appointed NIH director of laboratories and clinics. In May 1968,
Dr. Mider transferred to the NLM as special assistant to the director for medical
program development and evaluation. The following year he was named acting deputy
director, and in 1970 became NLM deputy director.
In 1960, he was the recipient of a DHEW Distinguished Service Award. Dr.
Mider retired from the Library on June 30, 1972,
to become executive officer for the Universities Associated for Research and Education
in Pathology, Inc., and the American Society of Experimental Pathology.
John F. Sherman, Ph.D.
Dr. Sherman was appointed deputy director of NIH on November 1, 1968,
after a long career in research and research
grants administration. He was designated by HEW Secretary Richardson as acting director
of NIH on January 21, 1973, and served until a new director was appointed May 29, 1973.
He then returned to the position of deputy director.
He came to NIH in January 1953 as a research pharmacologist in the Laboratory
of Tropical Diseases, National Microbiological Institute which became the NIAID in 1955.
In July 1956, Dr. Sherman joined the staff of the NIAMD as assistant to the chief
of extramural programs. He became assistant chief of the institute's extramural programs
in August 1957, and deputy chief in October 1958.
On July 1, 1961, he was appointed associate director for extramural
programs, NINDB. He rejoined the NIAMD in 1962 as associate director for extramural
programs, serving in that capacity until January 1,
1964, when he was named NIH associate director for extramural programs.
Dr. Sherman was born on September 4, 1919, in Oneonta, N.Y. He received his
B.S. in 1949 from Union University College of Pharmacy in Albany, N.Y., and his Ph. D.
in pharmacology in 1953 from Yale University.
He is the author of numerous scientific papers and articles in his field of research.
In 1971, he received a DHEW Distinguished Service Award.
Dr. Sherman left NIH in 1974 to become vice president of the Association of
American Medical Colleges and director of the association's department of planning
and policy development.
Robert W. Berliner, M.D.
Dr. Berliner, the first NIH deputy director for science, is an internationally renowned
renal physiologist whose research in the field has contributed to understanding of the control
of the excretion of sodium and potassium salts.
For 12 years (1950-62), he was chief of
the Laboratory of Kidney and Electrolyte Metabolism, NHI, and from 1954 to
1968 served as the institute's director of
In 1968, he was appointed director of laboratories and clinics, NIH. He was
named to the newly created post of deputy director for science in 1969.
Prior to joining NIH in 1950, Dr. Berliner was assistant professor of medicine
at Columbia University, and research associate with the New York City department
Born in New York City on March 10, 1915, he received his B.S. from
Yale University and his M.D. from Columbia University in 1939. He served his
internship and residency at the Presbyterian
Hospital and Goldwater Memorial Hospital, respectively, both in New York.
He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1968. Other honors include
the PHS Distinguished Service Award (1962), the Homer W. Smith Award (1965),
the Modern Medicine Award for Distinguished Achievement (1969), and the American
Heart Association's Research Achievement Award (1970).
Dr. Berliner left NIH to accept appointment as dean of the Yale University
Medical School in September 1973.
DeWitt Stetten, Jr., M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Stetten, an eminent medical educator and researcher in metabolic diseases, was
named NIH deputy director for science on March 17, 1974.
He was born on May 31, 1909, in New York City. He received his A.B. degree
from Harvard College in 1930, and his M.D. and Ph. D. from Columbia University in
1934 and 1940, respectively. From 1934 to 1937, he took his internship and residency
at Bellevue Hospital in New York. Dr. Stetten then joined the staff at Columbia
University for 9 years, serving successively as
assistant instructor and assistant professor of
biochemistry. In 1947, he was appointed assistant professor in biological chemistry at
the Harvard Medical School. From 1948 to 1954, he was chief of the division
of nutrition and physiology for the Public Health Research Institute of New York City.
Dr. Stetten first came to NIH in 1954 as director of the intramural research
program of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. In that capacity,
he directed institute programs on basic and
clinical research in diabetes,
vitamin deficiencies, and disorders of the blood, bone, and liver. He left NIH in 1962
to become the first dean of the Rutgers Medical School, a position he held until his return
to NIH on October 1, 1970, as director of the National Institute of General
The American Diabetes Association awarded Dr. Stetten the Banting Medal
in 1957. In 1963, he delivered the 22nd annual NIH Lecture on the "History and
Natural History of Gout."
Among his many honors were the DHEW Superior Service Honor Award
(1973) DHEW Distinguished Service Award (1977).
He also received honorary D.Sc. degrees from Washington University (1974),
and from the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (1976).
Author of more than 100 original papers in his field of research, and coauthor of the
early editions of the textbook, Principles of
Biochemistry. Dr. Stetten served on the editorial boards of numerous scientific
and medical journals. He was president of the Foundation for Advanced Education in
the Sciences (1972-74), and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the
NAS Council. He was president of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine,
Dr. Stetten was named senior scientific advisor to the NIH director in
September 1979. He died on August 28, 1990.
Ronald W. Lamont-Havers, M.D.
Dr. Lamont-Havers, internationally known rheumatologist, was appointed
deputy director of NIH on August 4, 1974, after serving in an acting capacity
since May 20.
Prior to this appointment, he had
been deputy director of the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and
Digestive Diseases (1972-74), and NIH associate director for extramural research and
training for 4 years (1968-72).
A native of England, Dr. Lamont-Havers was born on March 6, 1920. He received
his B.A. in 1942 from the University of British Columbia, Canada, and M.D. in 1946
from the University of Toronto. He took staff and residency training (1946-48) at
the Vancouver General Hospital, and residency in internal medicine (1949-51) at the
Queen Mary Veterans Hospital in Montreal. From 1951 to 1953, he was a fellow of
the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital,
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. He also received a diploma
in internal medicine in 1953 from McGill University.
He came to NIH in 1964 as associate director for extramural programs, NIAMD.
From 1955 to 1964 he was national medical director of the Arthritis Foundation and
an instructor in medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University.
Prev-iously, he served as medical director of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism
Society, British Columbia division, Vancouver,
from 1953 to 1955, and as associate medical director, Student Health Service,
University of British Columbia (1948-49).
Dr. Lamont-Havers, author or coauthor of numerous papers on arthritis and
rheumatism, was honored in June 1973 with a DHEW Superior Service Award.
He left NIH in September 1976 to become deputy for research policy and
administration to the general director,
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
Thomas E. Malone, Ph. D.
Dr. Malone, whose career at the NIH began in 1962, was named the sixth deputy
director of NIH in March 1977.
He was born in Henderson, N.C., on June 3, 1926. He earned his B.S. and
M.S. degrees from North Carolina Central University in 1948 and 1949
respectively, and his Ph.D. from Harvard University
in 1952. During the period 1950-52 he held a teaching fellowship at Harvard University.
Dr. Malone was professor of zoology at N.C. Central University in Durham
from 1952 to 1958. He left that position to
accept a postdoctoral fellowship of the NAS National Research Council, serving as
a resident research associate at Argonne National Laboratory from 1958 to 1959.
He subsequently served on the faculty at Loyola University in Chicago until joining the
NIH staff in 1962.
He came to NIH as a member of the Grants Associates Program. After completing
year's training, he joined the staff of
the National Institute of Dental Research in 1963, serving in several
capacities--from 1963 to 1964 he was assistant chief of
the research grants section; 1964 to 1966, deputy chief, extramural programs; and 1966
to 1967, chief, periodontal diseases and soft tissue studies, extramural programs.
In 1967 Dr. Malone accepted a position as professor and chairman of the department
of biology at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. He returned to NIDR in
1969, where he was associate director for extramural programs until 1972 when he
was appointed NIH associate director for extramural research and training, a
position which he held until his appointment as deputy director of NIH.
He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and of numerous other
professional organizations in health research and
In June 1971 Dr. Malone received the DHEW Superior Service Award and
was honored in April 1974 with the DHEW Distinguished Service Award . In
October 1975 the American College of Dentists presented him with a Certificate of Merit.
He received a Senior Executive Service Presidential Merit Award in 1980 and
a Senior Executive Service Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award
He served as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the 31st through 35th
World Health Assemblies and has participated in numerous other international health activities.
Upon the resignation of Dr. Fredrickson, Dr. Malone was named acting NIH
director until the appointment of Dr. Wyngaarden.
Robert Goldberger, M.D.
A highly regarded scientist in biomedical research, Dr. Goldberger became NIH
deputy director for science in September 1979.
After receiving his A.B. degree from Harvard College in 1954, he attended
the New York University Medical School, where he obtained an M.D. in 1958. He interned
at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, and then spent 2 years as a postdoctoral fellow at
the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Enzyme Research. He came to the NIH as
a research associate in the National Heart Institute in 1961, working with Dr. C.
B. Anfinsen on the mechanism by which newly synthesized polypeptide chains attain
three-dimensional structures characteristic of
native proteins. In 1963 he was a visiting
scientist at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Dr. Goldberger served as a biochemist in the Laboratory of Chemical
Biology, NIAMD, from 1963 to 1966, when he became chief of that laboratory's
Biosynthesis and Control Section. He worked on regulation of gene expression in bacteria.
In 1973 he moved to the NCI's Division
of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis, where, as chief of the cellular regulation section,
he worked on hormonal regulation of gene expression in avian liver.
Dr. Goldberger has written one book on biochemistry and has edited a
multivolume treatise on biological regulation. From
1970 to 1971 he served as president of NIH's Inter-Assembly Council of the Assemblies
of Scientists. He received the Superior Service Award, DHEW, in 1973 and the
Meritorious Service Medal, USPHS, in 1977.
At the end of June 1981, he left NIH to accept a dual position as provost of
Columbia University and vice president for health sciences, and as a professor of chemistry.
William F. Raub, Ph.D.
Dr. Raub was appointed deputy director in August 1986. Since June 1983, he
had served as deputy director for extramural research and training coordinating
the development and implementation of policies affecting extramural programs.
Upon the resignation of Dr. Wyngaarden, July 31, 1989, Dr. Raub was named
acting NIH director.
He was NIH associate director for extramural research and training previous
to this appointment. He has served as associate director, National Eye Institute
(1975-78), and chief, Biotechnology Resources
Branch, Division of Research Resources (1969-75). He joined NIH in 1966.
Dr. Raub led the effort to develop the PROPHET system, a national
computer resource for pharmacologists and others
who study chemical/biological interactions. PROPHET is the most nearly
comprehensive set of information-handling tools for this
area of science ever to be presented in a unified system, and offered as a service to
the biomedical community.
A graduate of Wilkes College in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., in 1961, he received his Ph.D.
in 1965 from the University of Pennsylvania.
Joseph E. Rall, M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Rall was appointed deputy director for intramural research in June 1983. He
advises the NIH director on general scientific
matters and intramural research policies and coordinates the intramural research program.
With NIH since 1955, he was director of the division of intramural research at
the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases for more
than 20 years.
Dr. Rall received his M.D. from Northwestern University School of
Medicine (1945) and Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota (1952). He received
honorary degrees from North Central College,
(1966), the Free University of Brussels (1975),
and the University of Naples (1985). He was
elected to the NAS in 1980 and to
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1985. In 1988 he was invited to become
a member of the scientific advisory committee for the International Human Frontier
A member of many organizations and the coauthor of more than 160 scientific
articles, his research involves thyroid hormones, iodine metabolism, and thyroid diseases.
In addition to the Van Meter Prize (1950) and the Robert Williams
Distinguished Leadership Award of the Endocrine
Society (1983), Dr. Rall has received the Arthur
S. Flemming Award (1959), the DHHS Superior Service Award (1965) and
Distinguished Service Award (1968).
Katherine L. Bick, Ph.D.
Dr. Bick was named NIH deputy director for extramural research in April 1987. As
a principal advisor to the NIH director, she coordinates the development and
implementation of policies affecting NIH
She joined NIH in 1976 as a scientist administrator in the Neurological
Disorders Program, NINCDS. In September 1983 she was appointed NINCDS deputy
director, after serving in an acting capacity
since February 1981. While in this position she received a PHS Special Achievement
Award for sustained superior work performance.
A native of Canada, Dr. Bick received her undergraduate degree from Acadia
University, Nova Scotia, and earned her Ph.D. from Brown University. She has held
academic positions at Georgetown University and California State University, Northridge,
and research positions at the UCLA School of Medicine and the University of
Among her many honors are the PHS Superior Service Award (1986),
Senior Executive Service Bonus Award for Performance (1984-88), and the NIH
Director's Award (1977). In 1989 she received a Presidential Senior Rank Award.
Dr. Bick left NIH in April 1990.
John W. Diggs, Ph.D.
Dr. Diggs was appointed NIH deputy director for extramural research on July 29, 1990.
He had been director of the NIAID Division of Extramural Activities since 1982.
He was born in Gleason, Tenn., on March 23, 1936. A biology major at Lane
College in Jackson, Tenn., he earned his M.S.
(1969) and Ph.D. (1972) in physiology from Howard University. His postdoctoral work
included serving as a senior research physiologist
at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
Dr. Diggs joined NINDS in 1974 as a health scientist administrator and received
the institute's Special Achievement Award in 1979. He received the NIH Director's
in 1985, the Presidential
Meritorious Executive Rank Award in 1987, and the
PHS Superior Service Award in 1990.
Included in his other honors are the Super Achiever in Science Award of Lane
College National Alumni (1989), Merit Award of the District of Columbia General
Hospital (1989), Outstanding Service Award of Montgomery Count Department of
Health (1989), Outstanding Service Award of Maryland Congress of Parents and
Teachers, Inc. (1989), the Distinguished Senior Professional Award from the
International Professional Management Association (1986), and Howard's Distinguished
Alumni Award (1979).
Lance A. Liotta, Ph.D., M.D.
Dr. Liotta was named NIH deputy director for intramural research effective July 6.
He joins the Office of the Director after simultaneously serving since 1982 in
three NCI Laboratory of Pathology positions: chief, tumor invasion and metastases
section; lab chief; and codirector, Anatomic
Pathology Residency Program.
He earned his A.B. degree in general science and biology from Hiram College
in Ohio, followed by his Ph.D. in biomedical engineering and biomathematics from
Case Western Reserve University. In 1976 he earned his M.D. from Case Western
and joined NIH as a PHS resident physician in the NCI Laboratory of Pathology.
Dr. Liotta has devoted his career to the study of cancer invasion and metastasis,
the major cause of cancer treatment failure. He was one of the first scientists to
investigate this process at the molecular level. In
1975 he proposed that tumor cell attachment and degradation of the basement membrane
(a collagenous sheath that surrounds epithelial ducts, blood vessels and nerves,
and separates tissue compartments) was crucial to invasion and metastasis.
He found that disruption of the basement membrane is the general hallmark of
the transition from in situ to invasive cancer for all human epithelial cancers. He
discovered metallo-proteinases produced by tumor
cells that degrade the metastasis; TIMP-2 (Dr. William Stetler-Stevenson), a new
protein that inhibits invasion and angiogenesis; laminin-binding proteins (Dr. Mark
Sobel) that mediate tumor cell attachment; and autotaxin (Dr. Mary Stracke), a protein
that profoundly stimulates motility.
Dr. Liotta's group also developed the
first synthetic compound (CAI) (Dr. Elise Kohn) that blocks cancer metastasis growth
by inhibiting selected signal transduction pathways. CAI has now entered
clinical phase I trials under support from the
Division of Cancer Treatment.
He is a member of the International Metastasis Research Society,
Association for Cancer Research,
American Association of Pathologists, American Society of Cell Biology, American
Society for Clinical Investigation, and the
International Academy of Pathology.
Dr. Liotta has received numerous awards including three PHS Commissioned
Corps Medals, the Arthur S. Flemming Award, the Warner Lambert/Parke Davis Award,
the Josef Steiner Prize, and the Lil Gruber Research Award. He holds more than
30 patents for his work.
Ruth Kirschstein, M.D.
Dr. Kirschstein, director of NIGMS became NIH deputy director in November 1993.
She was appointed director of NIGMS on September 1, 1974.
A native of Brooklyn, N.Y., she received her B.A. degree in 1947 from Long
Island University and her M.D. in 1951 from Tulane University School of Medicine. She
interned in medicine and surgery at Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, and did residencies
in pathology at Providence Hospital, Detroit; Tulane University School of Medicine;
and the Clinical Center, NIH.
From 1957 to 1972, Dr. Kirschstein performed research in experimental
pathology at the Division of Biologics Standards (now the Center for Biologics Evaluation
and Research, FDA). During that time, she helped develop and refine tests to assure
the safety of viral vaccines for such diseases as polio, measles, and rubella. Her work
on polio led to selection of the Sabin vaccine for public use. For her role, she received
the DHEW Superior Service Award in 1971.
In 1972 she became assistant director of the Division of Biologics Standards.
That same year, when the division was transferred to the FDA as a bureau, she was
appointed deputy director. She subsequently served
as deputy associate commissioner for science, FDA, before being named NIGMS director.
From September 1990 to September 1991, she was also acting associate director of
the NIH for research on women's health.
Dr. Kirschstein has twice taken part in World Health Organization deliberations
in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1965 as a member of the WHO Expert Group on
International Requirements for Biological Substances,
and in 1967 as a consultant on problems related to the use of live poliovirus oral
She has received many honors and awards, including the PHS Superior Service
Award, 1978; the Presidential Meritorious
Executive Rank Award, 1980; election to the
Institute of Medicine, 1982; the PHS Equal Opportunity Achievement Award, 1983; a doctor
of science, honoris causa, degree from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 1984; the PHS
Special Recognition Award, 1985; the Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award,
1985; the Distinguished Executive Service Award
of the Senior Executive Association,
1985; an honorary doctor of laws degree from Atlanta University, 1985; an honorary
doctor of science degree from the Medical College of Ohio, 1986; the Harvey Wiley
FDA Commissioner's Special Citation, 1987; selection by the Office of Personnel
Management as 1 of 10 outstanding executives and organizations for its first group of
"Profiles in Excellence," 1989; the Dr. Nathan
Davis Award from the AMA, 1990; an honorary doctor of humane letters from Long
Island University in 1991; election as a fellow of
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1992; and the Public Service Award from
the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in 1993.
She is the author of more than 70
scientific papers viral pathology, viral oncology,
and the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.
Michael Gottesman, M.D.
A well-known and respected basic cancer researcher who has focused on
multidrug resistance in human cells, Dr. Gottesman
was appointed NIH deputy director for intramural research (DDIR) in November 1993. He
had been acting DDIR for the previous year and was acting director of the National Center
for Human Genome Research from 1992 to 1993. He continues as chief of
NCI's Laboratory of Cell Biology, a post he has held since 1990.
Born on October 7, 1946, in Jersey City, NJ, he received his B.A. degree from
Harvard College in 1966 and earned his M.D. degree at Harvard Medical School in 1970.
In 1971 Dr. Gottesman came to NIH as a research associate in the National Institute
of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases (now NIDDK), where he worked for 3 years.
He spent a year as an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and, together
with his wife, joined the permanent staff of NCI
in 1976. He became chief of the molecular cell genetics section, Laboratory of
Molecular Biology, NCI, in 1980 and chief of the Laboratory of Cell Biology, NCI, in 1990.
At NIH, his research interests have ranged from how DNA is replicated in bacteria
to how cancer cells elude chemotherapy. In the past several years--collaborating with Dr.
Ira Pastan, chief of NCI's Laboratory of Molec-ular Biology, he has identified the
human gene responsible for resistance of cancer
cells to many of the most common anticancer drugs and has shown that this gene encodes
a protein which acts to pump anticancer drugs out of drug-resistant human cancers.
This evidence supports the proposal, now widely accepted, that gp170 is an
energy-dependent pump, ferrying molecules of toxins or of drugs out of the cell. For
several years, Dr. Gottesman has been examining clinical applications of his gp170
findings using gene therapy, monoclonal
antibodies, and reversing agents to fight MDR. He
recently observed that derivatives
of verapamil and other gp170 inhibitors reverse MDR in human renal carcinoma cells
in vitro, and in transgenic mice.
His research has earned him many awards, including the Milken Family
Foundation Award for Cancer Research, 1990; C.E. Alken Prize, 1991; Samuel G. Taylor
III Award for Excellence in Cancer Research, 1991; Jefferson Cancer Institute Prize,
1991; and the Rosenthal Foundation Award, 1992. He was elected a fellow in the
American Association for the Advancement of
Science in 1988.
Dr. Gottesman is also a member of the American Association for Cancer
Research, the American Society for Biochemistry
and Molecular Biology, and the American Society for Cell Biology. He has served
on several editorial boards including the
Journal of Cell Biology; the Journal of
Biological Chemistry, Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry; Molecular
Pharmacology; Molecular Biology of the Cell;
Cancer Research; Cell Growth and Differentiation; Human Gene
Therapy; and GenoMethods.
He has also been involved in initiating several training and mentoring initiatives
at NIH. He has been the coordinator of the NIH-Howard Hughes Medical
Institute summer scholar program for high school students and has organized a program
under the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences to bring high school teachers
to NIH to work in laboratories. As DDIR, he has instituted training for minority
and disadvantaged students and loan repayment programs for clinical researchers at NIH.
Wendy Baldwin, Ph.D.
Dr. Baldwin was appointed NIH deputy director for extramural research in
February 1994, after serving in an acting capacity
since June 1993. She will guide the NIH
institutes and centers in the development of policies
for their extramural research and research training programs. She will also
oversee--for NIH and PHS--programs aimed at
protection of human subjects in research and the
proper care and use of laboratory animals in scientific studies.
She has made significant scientific contributions, primarily in
adolescent fertility, contraceptive practice,
childbearing patterns, AIDS risk behaviors, and
infant mortality. She has published widely and
has served on many NIH panels and committees, including the panel on NIH research
on antisocial, aggressive, and violence-related behaviors, as well as the NIH
advisory committee on women's health issues.
Dr. Baldwin joined NIH in 1973 as a health scientist administrator with NICHD.
In 1979 she became chief of NICHD's Demographic and Behavioral
Sciences Branch in the Center for Population Research. She was named deputy director
of NICHD in 1991, a post she held until her appointment as NIH deputy director
for extramural research.
She earned her Ph.D. in demography in 1973 and her M.A. in 1970 from
the University of Kentucky. She received her B.A. from Stetson University in 1967.
Among her professional activities, she served as a temporary advisor to the
WHO task force for social science research on reproductive health, on a National
Academy of Sciences panel on adolescent pregnancy, and on a scientifice advisory committee
for demographic and health sciences. She is a past member several editorial boards.
Dr. Baldwin has received many professional awards from PHS, NIH, and