NIH 1998 Almanac/The Organization/NIAID/
National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases: Important Events in NIAID History
1948--The National Microbiological Institute was established November 1. The Rocky
Mountain Laboratory and the Biologics Control Laboratory, both dating to 1902, were
incorporated into the new institute, together with the Division of Infectious Diseases and
the Division of Tropical Diseases of NIH.
1951--An institute-supported grants program was initiated, and a branch was
established to administer research, training, and fellowship grants. Grant applications
were reviewed by the National Advisory Health Council until 1956.
1953--The Clinical Research Branch was renamed the Laboratory of Clinical
1955--The National Microbiological Institute became the National Institute of
Allergy and Infectious Diseases on December 29. The Biologics Control Laboratory was
detached from the institute and expanded to division status within NIH.
1956--The first meeting of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Council was held March 7-8.
1957--The Laboratory of Immunology was established in January to meet the growing
need for research on the mechanisms of allergy and immunology.
The Middle America Research Unit was established in the Canal Zone jointly by NIAID and
the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research as a temporary field station, made permanent in
1961. Important tropical diseases studies were done there for 15 years. NIAID transferred
its part of the program to the Gorgas Memorial Institute in 1972.
1959--The Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases was established, formerly a part of the
Division of Tropical Diseases.
1962--A collaborative research program funded mainly by contracts was established
within the institute to plan, coordinate, and direct nationwide projects on infectious
diseases, vaccine development, transplantation immunology, research reagents, and
1967--The Laboratory of Viral Diseases was established.
1968--With the dissolution of NIHs Office of International Research and
creation of the Fogarty International Center on July 1, 1968, programs formerly managed by
OIR were transferred to NIAID to be administered by the Geographic Medicine Branch. These
included the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program--initiated in 1965 by the
President and the Japanese Prime Minister to explore the health problems of Asia, and the
International Centers for Medical Research and Training--a 1960 congressional initiative
to advance the status of U.S. health sciences through international research.
1971--The first seven Allergic Disease Centers were established to translate basic
concepts of the biomedical sciences into clinical investigations.
1974--The first centers for the study of sexually transmitted diseases and of
influenza were established.
1977--The NIAID Extramural Research Program was reorganized into three areas:
Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Immunology, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases; and
Extramural Activities. An intramural Laboratory of Immunogenetics was formed.
1978--The first maximum containment facility (P4) for recombinant DNA research was
opened in Frederick, Md. International program project grants and international
exploratory/development research grants programs were established. Centers were created
for interdisciplinary research on immunologic diseases.
1979--The Office of Recombinant DNA Activities was transferred from the NIGMS to
NIAID. The International Collaboration in Infectious Diseases Research Program superseded
the International Centers for Medical Research and Training established in 1960.
The Rocky Mountain Laboratory was reorganized into the Laboratory of Persistent Viral
Diseases to deal with both host and viral mechanisms leading to slow or persistent viral
infections; the Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, directed at bacterial
diseases, particularly sexually transmitted diseases; and an Epidemiology Branch.
1980--The Laboratory of Immunoregulation was established to provide a means for
applying new knowledge in immunology to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients
with immunological disorders.
1981--The Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology was created to exploit new
techniques in recombinant DNA methodology and other molecular studies to expand the
institutes interests in both bacterial and viral pathogenesis and virulence.
1984--The Office of Tropical Medicine and International Research (OTMIR) was
established to coordinate NIAIDs intramural and extramural research activities in
tropical medicine and other international research. OTMIR works with other Federal
agencies and international organizations active in these areas.
1985--The Laboratory of Immunopathology was established. At Rocky Mountain
Labor-atories, the Epidemiology Branch was renamed the Laboratory of Pathology.
1986--An Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program was established in
January to coordinate the institutes extramural research efforts in HIV/AIDS.
1987--The Laboratory of Cellular and Mo-lecular Immunology was established.
1988--The Immunology, Allergic and Immu-nologic Diseases Program was reorganized
and renamed the Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Program.
The Office of Recombinant DNA Activities transferred from NIAID to the NIH Office of
1989--NIAIDs programs became divisions: Intramural Research; Microbiology and
Infectious Diseases; Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation; Acquired Immunodeficiency
Syndrome; and Extramural Activities.
1990--At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, a section of the Laboratory of Microbial
Structure and Function became the Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites. The name of the
Laboratory of Pathobiology was changed to the Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens.
1991--The Laboratory of Host Defenses was established.
1994--The Laboratory of Allergic Diseases was established.
The Office of Research on Minority and Women's Health was created.
At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, the Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens was renamed the