NIH 1998 Almanac/The Organization/NIDDK/
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases : NIDDK Legislative Chronology
December 11, 1947--Under section 202 of P.L.
78-410 the Experimental Biology and Medicine Institute was established.
August 15, 1950--Public Law 81-692, the
Omnibus Medical Research Act, authorized establishment of NIAMDD to "... conduct
researches relating to the cause, prevention, and methods of diagnosis and treatment of
arthritis and rheumatism and other metabolic diseases, to assist and foster such
researches and other activities by public and private agencies, and promote the
coordination of all such researches, and to provide training in matters relating to such
diseases... ." Section 431 also authorized the Surgeon General to establish a
national advisory council.
May 19, 1972--President Nixon signed P.L.
92-305 to bring renewed emphasis to research in digestive diseases by changing the name of
the institute to NIAMDD and by designating a digestive diseases committee within the
institutes National Advisory Council.
July 23, 1974--Public Law 93-354, the
National Diabetes Mellitus Research and Education Act, was signed. The National Commission
on Diabetes, called for by this act, was chartered on September 17, 1974, members were
appointed by the HEW secretary. The act called for centers for research and training in
diabetes and establishment of an intergovernmental diabetes coordinating committee,
including NIAMDD and six other NIH institutes.
January 1975--The National Arthritis Act of
1974 (P.L. 93-640) was signed into law to further research, education and training in the
field of the connective tissue diseases. The mandated National Commission on Arthritis and
Related Musculoskeletal Diseases, was appointed by the HEW secretary June 2. The act
required centers for research and training in arthritis and rheumatic diseases and the
establishment of a data bank, as well as an overall plan to investigate the epidemiology,
etiology, control and prevention of these disorders.
October 1976--P.L. 94-562, the Arthritis,
Diabetes, and Digestive Diseases Amendments of 1976, established the National Diabetes
Advisory Board charged with advising Congress and the HEW secretary on implementation of
the "Long-Range Plan to Combat Diabetes" developed by the National Commission on
Diabetes. The law also established the National Commission on Digestive Diseases to deal
with many problems, including investigation into the incidence, duration, mortality rates,
and social and economic impact of digestive diseases.
The National Arthritis Advisory Board,
established by the same law, reviews and evaluates the implementation of the Arthritis
Plan, formulated by the Arthritis Act of 1974. The board advises Congress, the HHS
secretary, and heads of Federal agencies with respect to the plan and other Federal
programs relating to arthritis.
December 1980--Title II of the Health
Programs Extension Act of 1980, P.L. 96-538, changed the institutes name to the
National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The act also
established the National Digestive Diseases Advisory Board. The law authorized the
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, the Diabetes Data Group, and the National
Digestive Diseases Information and Education Clearinghouse. In addition, it reauthorized
advisory boards for arthritis and diabetes research.
December 5, 1980--The Omnibus Reconciliation
Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-499) directed the Secretary to carry out a demonstration project to
determine whether nutritional therapy can retard the progression of early renal disease
and thus delay the onset of dialysis.
November 20, 1985--The Health Research
Extension Act of 1985, P.L. 99-158, changed the institute name to the National Institute
of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The act also established the National
Kidney and Urologic Diseases Advisory Board. The law gave parallel special authorities to
all institute operating divisions, including authorization of the National Kidney and
Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse; National Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic
Diseases Coordinating Committee; National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Data System;
National Digestive Diseases Data System; kidney and urologic diseases research centers;
and digestive diseases research centers.
November 4, 1988--The Health Omnibus Programs
Extension Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-607) gave permanent authority to the NIDDK Advisory Boards
by deleting their date of expiration.
June 10, 1993--The NIH Revitalization Act of
1993, P.L. 103-43, established NIDDK as the lead institute in nutritional disorders and
obesity, including the formation of a research and training centers program on nutrtional
disorders and obesity.
It also provided for the directors of NIAMS, NIA,
NIDR, and the NIDDK to expand and intesify programs with respect to research and related
activities concerning osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and related bone disorders.
July 25, 1997--A House report accompanying
H.R. 2264 and Senate report with S. 1061, FY 1998 appropriations bills for
Labor/HHS/Education, urged the NIH and NIDDK to establish a diabetes research working
group to develop a comprehensive plan for NIH-funded diabetes research that would
recommend future initiatives and directions. The plan is due to Congress within 12 months
of enactment of the NIH appropriations bill, on November 13, 1998.