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The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. NIAAA also provides leadership in the national effort to reduce the severe and often fatal consequences of these problems by:
December 31, 1970 – NIAAA was established under authority of the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-616) with authority to develop and conduct comprehensive health, education, training, research, and planning programs for the prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.
May 14, 1974 – Passage of P.L. 93-282, which established NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration.
July 26, 1976 – Expansion of NIAAA’s research authority to include behavioral and biomedical etiology of the social and economic consequences of alcohol abuse and alcoholism under authority of the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act amendments of 1976 (P.L. 94-371).
August 1981 – Passage of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (P.L. 97-35) transferred responsibility and funding for alcoholism treatment services to the states through the creation of an Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services block grant administered by ADAMHA and strengthened NIAAA’s research mission.
October 27, 1986 – Creation of a new Office for Substance Abuse Prevention in ADAMHA by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-570) consolidated the remainder of NIAAA’s nonresearch prevention activities with those of NIDA and permitted NIAAA’s total commitment to provide national stewardship to alcohol research.
July 10, 1992 – NIAAA became a new NIH research institute under authority of ADAMHA Reorganization Act (P.L. 102-321).
May 3, 1995 – NIAAA celebrated its 25th anniversary.
NIAAA supports research through a program of extramural grant support to scientists at leading U.S. research institutions, through interdisciplinary National Alcohol Research Centers Program grants, and through active intramural research. Additionally, NIAAA is involved in a number of important collaborations within NIH and the international community. Findings from these research areas are made available and accessible through a wide variety of research dissemination activities.
NIAAA’s extramural research support is aimed at building a solid base of biomedical and behavioral knowledge for improved prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems. Scientists from a variety of disciplines, including social and behavioral sciences, biology, and medicine participate in the extramural program. Current directions in extramural research span diverse areas such as genetic predisposition to alcoholism, the neurosciences, alcohol and pregnancy research, the development of pharmacological interventions to treat alcohol abuse and alcoholism and its effects, and alcohol-related public health policies. Selected extramural program highlights are provided below.
Genetics. Alcoholism has been recognized for centuries as a familial disorder, and over the last 25 years, NIAAA-supported twin, family, and adoption studies have indicated major roles of both genetic and environmental factors in its etiology. Today, twin studies are defining more precisely those aspects of alcoholism which are genetically inherited. Vulnerability to alcoholism is influenced by multiple genes, whose precise number, identity, and modes of action are as yet unknown. NIAAA supports genetic linkage and association studies in affected individuals and their families, in order to identify these genes. The largest such study, initiated in 1989, has recently published suggestive evidence for the locations of several such genes, based on detailed diagnostic evaluations of more than 14,000 individuals drawn from families densely affected by alcoholism, and genetic typing of more than 2,000 individuals selected from this sample.
In addition to human genetic studies, NIAAA supports a vigorous program of genetic analysis of alcohol-related behavior in animals. NIAAA-funded selective breeding studies on mice and rats have shown that many alcohol-related behavioral traits (for example, consumption, sedation, withdrawal, hypothermia, locomotor stimulation) are genetically influenced, and that, for the most part, different genes influence the different traits. Much of the current genetic research is focused on mapping and identifying the individual genes, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing these traits. Since gene identification proceeds more rapidly in animals than in humans, and since human counterparts of animal genes can readily be tested for potential relationship to alcoholism, the animal genetic studies are expected to speed the discovery of human genes influencing vulnerability to alcoholism. More recently, investigators have been using mutations targeted to specific components of nerve cells (gene knockouts), as well as randomly generated mutant mice with altered alcohol-related behavior in order to test the role of these components in mediating alcohol's effects on the nervous system.
Identification of genes predisposing to alcoholism will greatly facilitate elucidation of the physiological pathways mediating the development of this disorder. Each step in each pathway so identified is a potential target for prevention and treatment. Moreover, knowledge of the genes predisposing to alcoholism will permit the design of more powerful studies to determine which environmental factors influence this disease.
The NIAAA also supports studies to determine the respective contributions of the environment and genetics to differential susceptibility of alcohol-related medical disorders such as liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, and fetal alcohol syndrome.
Alcohol and Pregnancy. NIAAA supports research to determine why and how alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have many adverse consequences for the fetus, the most serious of which is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a disorder that includes reduced growth, facial abnormalities, and neurological and behavioral impairment. Laboratory studies have identified several cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to these defects, which may provide a basis for possible preventive therapies.
Epidemiological and clinical studies to determine environmental and other factors (e.g., cultural norms and genetic predisposition) that place women at risk of giving birth to a FAS child are supported in order to develop and target prevention and intervention efforts more effectively. The development of biomarkers to confirm exposure to the fetus can aid in the identification of high risk mothers and target high risk infants for evaluation by medical specialists. NIAAA also supports and encourages research that develops and/or evaluates community-, clinic-, and family-based strategies to prevent drinking by pregnant women, especially those at excess risk of bearing an alcohol-impaired child.
The effects of binge and low-level or moderate drinking on prenatal development are of special concern because these patterns of drinking are so prevalent. Longitudinal human studies have shown that behavioral problems can occur at these levels of prenatal exposure. Neuroimaging studies of children with FAS and some manifestations of the syndrome, in conjunction with neurobehavioral tests, are providing clues about the nature of neurodevelopmental deficits and may lead to better diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.
Neurosciences. NIAAA funds research designed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying alcohol abuse and alcoholism. This research encompasses all levels of study, from determining the molecular targets of alcohol in the brain, through characterizing the effects of alcohol on cellular responses and neuronal function, to identifying and understanding neural pathways and neural circuits that mediate various actions of acute and chronic alcohol exposure. This research employs a variety of state-of-the-art methodologies. Molecular biology and genetic techniques are being used for the development of transgenic animals in studies seeking to link the actions of alcohol on specific target proteins and neural circuits with its behavioral effects. Noninvasive, functional imaging techniques are being used in animal and human studies to identify the brain regions influenced by alcohol. Such studies are being coupled with multi-unit electrophysiological recordings in the brain to provide more specific information on those cellular mechanisms underlying activation or inhibition of neural circuits after alcohol ingestion. Moreover, the development of computational or mathematical models of brain structure and function, based on data obtained from this experimental research, should afford an additional complement to the analysis of alcohol's effects on nervous system function and behavior.
Recent evidence suggests that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Indeed, epidemiological studies indicate that the earlier in life individuals begin to seriously drink the greater the likelihood that they will become alcohol dependent. NIAAA is encouraging studies to better understand this vulnerability. This includes the development of non-human primate models to study the adolescent period.
Finally, neuroscience research is providing basic knowledge needed to design medications for potential use as therapeutic agents. The program encourages development of lead compounds for eventual testing in clinical studies.
Medications Development. NIAAA is strongly committed to the development of pharmacological interventions to diminish the craving for alcohol, reduce risk of relapse, and safely detoxify dependent individuals undergoing treatment. Pharmacologic agents are at various stages of development ranging from preclinical research to clinical application for the treatment of alcoholism. The two most promising medications are naltrexone and acamprosate. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been approved by FDA as a safe and effective adjunct to psychosocial treatment for alcoholism. Acamprosate, a medication that interacts with the glutamate receptor, has been shown effective in increasing rates of abstinence. NIAAA has recently initiated an 11-site clinical trial evaluating the combination of naltrexone and acamprosate, both alone and together, with behavioral therapies.
Since alcohol-seeking behavior is complex and involves several neurotransmitter systems and neurohormones, NIAAA is exploring a range of medications to modify drinking behavior, including ondansetron, a serotonin3 (5-HT3) blocker; memantine, a glutamate NMDA blocker; and kudzu, a herbal preparation. Related topics of interest are medication compliance, differential effect of pharmacotherapies on subtypes of alcoholics, effects of medications when combined with psychosocial interventions, and medications in combination.
Treatment. NIAAA continues to emphasize research to improve treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. NIAAA-supported studies have demonstrated that brief interventions delivered in primary care health settings are effective for reducing alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers. NIAAA is committed to supporting clinical trials evaluating a broad range of therapies from mutual help groups; behavioral therapies, such as skills training; and psychological therapies, such as motivation intervention and family therapy. Adolescent treatment deserves special emphasis since fewer clinical trials of adolescent treatment have been done than of adult therapies.
Community Prevention Trials. NIAAA funds community-based controlled intervention trials to prevent alcohol-related trauma (including violence), underage drinking, and drinking and driving. One project tests a school/parent/community-focused intervention among economically and ethnically diverse populations, while others test media advocacy strategies, traditional mass media approaches, policy changes, strategies to enhance voluntary and enforced compliance with underage drinking laws, and a variety of community-mobilization techniques. Results to date indicate that: 1) interventions simultaneously focused on schools, parents, and the community-at-large can delay and lessen underage drinking; 2) community organizing efforts can decrease sales (and distribution) of alcohol to youth; 3) community initiatives involving enhanced law enforcement, media and educational campaigns, and public and private collaboration can significantly reduce drinking and driving and alcohol-involved fatal crashes; and 4) enhanced law enforcement and attendant publicity can increase the perceived risk of arrest, which appears to be a critical mediating catalyst for decreased alcohol-related crashes. New methodologies permit prevention researchers to target high-risk neighborhoods within larger cities.
College-Focused Epidemiologic and Prevention Research. A large number of studies are addressing alcohol problems on college campuses, including "binge" drinking. Epidemiologic studies are exploring various aspects of drinking by college students. These studies include: 1) a longitudinal cohort study of college students looking at the transition to college and drinking problems and analyzing drinking trajectories across the college years, and 2) a study investigating the role of alcohol in college students' decisions about engaging in risky sexual behavior. Studies are also testing the efficacy and effectiveness of preventive interventions designed to reduce drinking and problem drinking among college students. These intervention studies focus on: group-counseling and feedback approaches to prevent risky drinking in fraternities and sororities; campus-wide social-norms marketing approaches to reduce high-risk drinking; motivational counseling and feedback strategies targeted at high-risk individuals; laboratory and environmental techniques that challenge positive expectancies about the benefits of alcohol; the relative and additive effectiveness of social norms marketing, direct-mail personal feedback, and skills-training interventions; educational strategies that target parents of college bound freshmen; and comprehensive campus/community policies and programs dealing with alcohol availability, promotion, and formal regulation and control. Some of this research is co-funded by the Department of Education and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Other Prevention Areas. Other composites of grants that are addressing special areas of emphasis include four studies that are measuring the impact of alcohol advertising on youth and adults in terms of their expectancies regarding the benefits and risks of drinking, their intentions to drink, and their actual drinking behavior. Five other studies are testing, through randomized controlled trials, the effectiveness of various sanctions and treatments to prevent recidivism for DWI (drinking while intoxicated). Priority areas that need further development include studies of interventions to prevent work-related alcohol problems, alcohol-related violence, and alcohol-related sexual risk taking that can lead to HIV/AIDS; family-focused preventive interventions; and tests of promising and proven prevention strategies among ethnic minorities.
Health Services Research. NIAAA supports a program of health services research endeavors that seeks to expand understanding of how alcohol treatment and prevention services are organized, managed, financed, and delivered and how these factors influence the availability, quality, cost, utilization, effectiveness, and efficiency of these services. NIAAA-supported studies have demonstrated that brief interventions delivered in primary care, emergency, and other medical settings to alcohol abusers who might not otherwise receive treatment are effective in reducing alcohol consumption and subsequent alcohol-related problems. Similarly, other NIAAA-supported studies have begun to demonstrate that brief and other interventions with alcohol abusers can yield a significant cost benefit savings to society. Other alcohol health services research studies continue to examine the effects of widespread shifts to managed care services, the economic impact of alcohol treatment, and disparities in the availability of alcohol services across racial, ethnic, gender, geographic, and insurance categories. Current research emphases include expanded economic analyses of treatment, improvements in adopting research findings in clinical practice, and secondary analyses of existing health services data.
Epidemiology. Alcohol epidemiology provides the foundation for monitoring the health of the population, developing and evaluating prevention and treatment services for alcohol problems, and establishing alcohol-related social policies. NIAAA conducts and supports research to study the distribution and determinants of alcohol use, abuse, dependence and the associated health and social consequences.
Surveillance activities such as collecting alcohol sales information, U.S. vital statistics, and hospital records are supported to track alcohol consumption and its related problems over time and location. Population-based survey research is encouraged to examine the context, volume, and specific drinking patterns that lead to particular alcohol-related problems as well as the impact of age, gender, race/ethnicity, and other sociodemographic factors. Analytic epidemiological studies which formulate and test hypotheses about genetic, environmental, and other factors which influence injury or disease occurrence are also supported.
Research is funded on the role of alcohol and injuries. The most extensive research has been supported in the role of alcohol in motor vehicle injuries and deaths; however research on the role of alcohol in other injuries, both intentional and unintentional, is also ongoing. The epidemiology of the medical consequences of alcohol use and abuse is an important area of research. Such research includes epidemiologic studies of co-occurring disorders, particularly psychiatric comorbidity and other drug abuse/dependence as well as studies of the risks and benefits of moderate alcohol consumption. Methodological studies are also fostered to improve measurement and assessment in all of the above areas of research.
National Alcohol Research Centers Program. NIAAA administers 15 diverse Alcohol Research Centers nationwide through the institute’s National Alcohol Research Center Grants Program. This program is interrelated with and complementary to all other research support mechanisms and scientific activities that investigate the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, prevention, and consequences of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. The program provides long-term (typically 5 years) support for interdisciplinary research that focuses on particular aspects of alcohol abuse, alcoholism, or other alcohol-related problems. This program encourages outstanding scientists from many disciplines to provide a full range of expertise, approaches, and advanced technologies for developing knowledge in these areas.
A primary goal of any NIAAA-funded center is to become, through excellence in science research, a significant regional or national research resource. In addition, each center affords research training opportunities for persons from various disciplines and professions. Current areas of alcohol center focus are the genetic determinants of alcohol ingestion; epidemiology of alcohol problems; environmental approaches to prevention; effects of alcohol on cellular neurobiology; alcohol and the cell; etiology and treatment of alcohol dependence; alcohol and aging; genetic approaches to the neuropharmacology of alcohol; biobehavioral manifestations of adolescent alcohol abuse; genetics of neuroadaptation to ethanol; clinical and medical epidemiology; and etiology and pharmacological treatment of alcoholism. Intramural Research The overall goal of the NIAAA’s Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research is to understand the mechanisms by which alcohol produces intoxication, dependence, and damage to vital body organs, and to develop tools to prevent and treat those biochemical and behavioral processes. Areas of study include identification and assessment of genetic and environmental risk factors for the development of alcoholism; the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system, including how alcohol modifies brain activity and behavior; metabolic and biochemical effects of alcohol on various organs and systems of the body; noninvasive imaging of the brain structure and activity related to alcohol use development of animal models of alcoholism; and the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of alcoholism and associated disorders.
The overall goal of the NIAAA's Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research is to understand the mechanisms by which alcohol produces intoxication, dependence, and damage to vital body organs, and to develop tools to prevent and treat those biochemical and behavioral processes. Areas of study include identification and assessment of genetic and environmental risk factors for the development of alcoholism; the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system, including how alcohol modifies brain activity and behavior; metabolic and biochemical effects of alcohol on various organs and systems of the body; noninvasive imaging of the brain structure and activity related to alcohol use development of animal models of alcoholism; and the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of alcoholism and associated disorders.
The Division will expand its research portfolio: 1) by conducting studies to assess the role of particular molecular targets of alcohol in acute intoxication and alcohol-seeking behavior; 2) through structural biological analysis of membrane proteins that are targets for alcohol actions; 3) by studying protein kinase signaling cascades to enhance understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease and a variety of disorders caused by alcohol; 4) by pursuing preliminary findings that indicate that alcohol highly and potently stimulates P13 kinase in vascular endothelial cells in culture and, thus, may play a role in the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption in cardiovascular disease; and 5) by establishing a transgenic/knockout mouse facility to develop new research models to understand the genetic basis of alcohol drinking behavior and alcoholism. The Division will also embark on establishing sabbatical programs bringing prominent extramural scientists into the program and allowing intramural scientists to carry out research at extramural institutions.
NIAAA utilizes a combination of clinical and basic research facilities, which enables a coordinated interaction between basic research findings and clinical applications in pursuit of these goals. An 11-bed inpatient ward and a large outpatient program are located in the NIH Clinical Center.
Clinical Research. Among the studies carried out by the clinical program are 1) sophisticated electrophysiological, neuropsychological, and brain imaging studies on alcoholics, individuals at risk, and carefully matched controls; 2) the use of various specific serotonin receptor antagonists to compare differences in serotonin receptor concentration between alcoholic and normal subjects in both nonhuman primate and human populations; 3) investigations of the mechanisms underlying alcohol-related neurotoxicity, as well as the effects of this toxicity on the autonomic nervous system; 4) research on biochemical concomitants of violent behavior in alcoholics and on variables associated with increased vulnerability of developing alcoholism-related behavior; 5) exploring whether the “cognitive style” used by alcoholics is a risk factor for the development of alcoholism; 6) characterizing the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the etiology of alcoholism; and 7) exploration of possible biochemical determinants that might differentiate subtypes of alcoholism.
Genetics of Alcoholism. This research focuses on investigating and identifying the vulnerability and protective genes that underlie alcoholism’s heritability. Studies also have implications for the role of genes in behavior.
Two approaches are being used to identify behavior genes. The first approach uses positional cloning. The second approach uses large-scale screening of candidate genes expressed in the brain for identifying DNA sequence variants. These approaches have the strength of being complementary: the same groups of individuals important in performing the genetic linkage scan are also examined for the effects of gene variants identified through direct gene analysis. In addition, the results of the genetic linkage studies are used to provide candidate genes for identifying new DNA sequence variants.
Genetic and other determinants of alcoholism in population isolates including American Indian communities and Finland are being investigated. Evidence was found for two potential alcoholism-vulnerability genes in an Indian tribe with a high rate of alcoholism.
Other studies investigate the role of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, which is known for its important role in behavioral inhibition and anxiety. Studies also are examining other substances (endogenous opioids, neurotransmitter receptor proteins, and biosynthetic enzymes) that are also critical for alcohol reinforcement and for other behaviors. Toward the goal of determining the genetic basis of behavior, we identified a substantial collection of gene variants in neurogenetic candidate genes and have shown that several are functional in vitro and also effect in in vivo biology.
Alcohol and Essential Fatty Acids. NIAAA researchers are investigating the biological functions of essential fatty acids and the adverse effects of alcohol on these functions. A clinical study of alcoholics has indicated that there is a loss of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues and blood cells of these patients. Such losses are believed to be related to the tissue damage that occurs in almost every organ system in alcoholics but particularly in the liver and brain. Alcohol is perhaps the only dietary constituent that is capable of depleting the omega-3 fatty acids from the brain, and this may lead to the degeneration of neural cells and a loss in brain and visual function. An interdisciplinary approach is taken in these studies.
Losses of organ polyunsaturated fats as a consequence of chronic alcohol abuse, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and modulating nutritional factors, and the consequences for membrane function as assessed by biochemical and biophysical means are an integral part of this work. Fluorescence spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging are the principal tools used to study the functions of polyunsaturated phospholipids in membranes. Mass spectrometry is used for sensitive analysis of fatty acid metabolites in humans. Studies are also being conducted on the lipid requirements of the nervous system during early development, and the full range of experimental and clinical approaches available in the laboratory are employed in this effort.
Molecular Mechanisms of Alcohol Action in the Brain. Recent NIAAA research studies have demonstrated that alcohol affects signal transduction systems involved in the regulation of nerve cell excitability and the transmission of information at synapses. Using newly developed physiological and molecular biological techniques, institute scientists are working toward determining the molecular mechanisms of alcohol’s interaction with these signal transduction systems. Scientists also will investigate the molecular alterations of neural function associated with alcohol tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. This information will improve our understanding of the molecular basis of alcohol dependence and lead to development of treatments and prevention strategies.
Collaborative Research Activities
The Office of Collaborative Research Activities (OCRA) initiates and fosters collaborative activities with other NIH institutes, Federal agencies, foreign governments, and domestic and international organizations interested in research on alcohol-related problems. These activities include joint sponsorship of workshops and research initiatives and dissemination of research findings. Recent projects have focused on women's health, minority health, spirituality, prevention and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary care setting, medical education, science education, and adverse pregnancy outcomes due to alcohol consumption. The office also convenes and coordinates the work of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. OCRA administers and manages an active international research and training program to support the research efforts of scientists worldwide who are investigating questions about alcohol use that are relevant to the U.S. population.
International Research and Training. NIAAA sponsors a project that teams established U.S. investigators with their foreign counterparts to develop new alcohol research activities that serve as the foundation for the development of more intensive, larger studies. This program includes projects that are developing a medical education module for family physicians that addresses prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders in Hungary; implementing and evaluating an alcohol prevention intervention for Russian middle school students; identifying genes influencing predispositions to alcoholism in Ireland; examining alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders in Russia; and examining aspects of nervous system function that may predispose people to alcoholism in Mautitian youth.
The institute is actively involved with binational commissions in Russia and South Africa that have facilitated partnerships with U.S. investigators and their counterparts in these two countries. NIAAA’s active role in the Health Working Group of the Gore-Mbeki Bi-National Commission for South Africa has led to significant progress in the areas of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) research and efforts to develop research on prevention and treatment of alcoholism. The South African Government, recognizing that FAS is particularly prevalent in the Western Cape Province, is working with NIAAA on FAS research projects and prevention strategies.
In Russia, NIAAA has responsibility for alcohol activities on the Health Committee of the U.S./Russian Commission for Science and Technology. Alcoholism is a significant public health problem for Russia and U.S./Russian collaboration is focusing on three areas: 1) research on prevention and treatment of alcohol-use disorders in the primary care setting; 2) research to determine effective school and community-based prevention interventions targeted at Russian adolescents; and 3) research into detection, prevention, and intervention of alcohol-related birth defects.
NIAAA’s international medical education and research training efforts include faculty development projects jointly sponsored with medical schools in Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Mexico, Venezuela, and Sri Lanka. The institute also supports scientific exchanges to increase the research capacity of scientists in several foreign countries, including Finland, Japan, Poland, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Italy, Hungary, and others. NIAAA is a designated World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Alcohol Use Disorders.
NIAAA maintains an active communication program aimed at sharing with health care practitioners, researchers, policy makers, others involved in managing alcohol-related programs about research findings with applicability to alcohol treatment and prevention efforts, and the general public. Our scientific communications vehicles include publications such as:
Research findings are also shared with the alcohol and general health care communities through three online database services supported by the institute. The first of these, “Quick Facts,” provides access to alcohol-related epidemiologic data and facilitates communication among NIAAA staff and others interested in NIAAA programs and data.
The second database, “Alcohol and Alcohol Problems ScienceDatabase,” also known as ETOH, contains nearly 120,000 bibliographic records. ETOH is available through OVID Technologies, Inc., a commercial vendor as well as through NIAAA’s web site at http://etoh.niaaa.nih.gov. ETOH covers literature from the 1960s to the present and covers all aspects of alcohol research: psychology, psychiatry, physiology, biochemistry, epidemiology, sociology, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, education, safety, criminal justice, legislation, employment, labor and industry, and public policy. The database is updated monthly and a thesaurus is available for searching and retrieving information.
A third database contains information about NIAAA’s clinical trials. For each clinical trial, the following information is provided: location of clinical trials, their design and purpose, criteria for participation, and the treatment under study.
Currently, NIAAA’s website features publications (many available as full text documents), news releases, grant and contract information, conferences and workshops, databases, frequently asked questions for the public, and other alcohol-related resources.
1 Direct operating includes intramural
research; research management and support, and contracts..
|This page was last reviewed on September 26, 2002 .|
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