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NIH Almanac - Organization

Contents
About the Almanac
Historical Data
Organization
Appropriations
Staff
Major NIH Lectures
Nobel Laureates
Past Issues
NIAID logo   National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Mission | Important Events | Legislative Chronology | Director | Programs | Appropriations

Mission

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts and supports research to study the causes of allergic, immunologic, and infectious diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing, and treating these illnesses.

Following is a brief description of the major areas of investigation.

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). NIAID is responsible for conducting and supporting basic research on the pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS; developing new drug therapies; conducting clinical trials of promising experimental drugs for HIV infection and related opportunistic infections and cancers; carrying out epidemiologic studies to assess the impact of HIV on the populations most severely affected by the epidemic; and developing and testing HIV vaccines.
  • Asthma and Allergic Diseases. NIAID supports programs to evaluate the safety and efficacy of promising therapeutic approaches to reduce asthma severity and to prevent asthma among inner-city children. NIAID also is evaluating the safety and efficacy of promising approaches to tolerance induction for treatment of asthma and allergy as well as other immune-mediated disorders.
  • Global and Emerging Diseases. New diseases are arising worldwide and old diseases are re-emerging as infectious agents evolve or spread, and as changes occur in ecology, socioeconomic conditions, and population patterns. NIAID conducts and supports research on Lyme disease, hepatitis C, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and other emerging diseases to develop new or improved diagnostics, treatments, and vaccines.
  • Enteric Diseases. Worldwide, diarrheal diseases such as cholera and rotavirus infection are major causes of illness and death in infants and children. In contrast, viral hepatitis in its various forms, can cause severe disease in older children and adults, although it produces few symptoms among younger age groups. NIAID supports basic research on how enteric agents cause illness as well as studies aimed at developing and testing vaccines to prevent enteric infections.
  • Genetics and Transplantation. NIAID supports studies aimed at improving immunosuppressive therapies, further developing reagents needed for precise tissue matching, defining the genetic regulation of the immune response, and understanding the molecular mechanisms that control immune system genes. NIAID is participating in the first NIH cooperative clinical trial in kidney transplantation, designed to translate developments in basic research into new therapies to prevent graft rejection.
  • Immune-Mediated Diseases. NIAID supports basic, pre-clinical, and clinical research on immune-mediated diseases, including: asthma and allergic diseases, autoimmune diseases, primary immunodeficiency diseases, and the rejection of transplanted organs, tissues and cells. Efforts are underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of induction tolerance strategies for treating immune-mediated diseases, as well as clinical trials to assess the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for treating severe autoimmune diseases.
  • Malaria and Other Tropical Diseases. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, trypanosomiasis, and leprosy disable and kill millions of people worldwide. NIAID's research efforts in tropical medicine are conducted by U.S. and foreign investigators receiving Institute support and by NIAID scientists in Bethesda. NIAID supports a number of centers for tropical medicine research in countries where such diseases are endemic.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases. More than 13 million Americans each year acquire infectious diseases other than AIDS through sexual contact. Such STDs as gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus can have devastating consequences, particularly for young adults, pregnant women, and newborn babies. NIAID-supported scientists in STD Cooperative Research Centers, NIAID laboratories, and other research institutions are developing better diagnostic tests, improved treatments, and effective vaccines.
  • Vaccine Development. Effective vaccines have contributed enormously to improvements in public health in the United States during the last century. Research conducted and supported by NIAID has led to new or improved vaccines for a variety of serious diseases, including rabies, meningitis, whooping cough, hepatitis A and B, chickenpox, and pneumococcal pneumonia, to name a few. NIAID supports vaccine evaluation units for the testing of new vaccines in people at a number of U.S. medical centers.
  • Drug Research and Development. The development of therapies to treat infectious and immunologic diseases is a key component of NIAID's mission. In collaboration with industry, academia, and other government agencies, NIAID has established research programs to facilitate drug development, including databases to screen chemicals for their potential use as therapeutic agents, facilities to conduct preclinical screening of promising drugs, and clinical trials networks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs and therapeutic strategies.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance. NIAID funds a diverse portfolio of grants and contracts to study antimicrobial resistance in major viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Projects include basic research into the disease-causing mechanisms of pathogens, host-pathogen interactions, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for drug resistance, as well as applied research to develop and evaluate new or improved products for disease diagnosis, intervention, and prevention. NIAID-supported clinical trials networks with capacity to assess new antimicrobials and vaccines relevant to drug-resistant infections include the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Groups, the Mycoses Study Group, the Collaborative Antiviral Study Group, and Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Groups.
  • Minority and Women's Health. Some of the diseases studied by NIAID disproportionately affect women and minority populations. The Institute remains committed to the inclusion of minorities and women in every aspect of its scientific agenda, from recruitment of special populations into clinical studies to the conduct of biomedical research by minority researchers. NIAID's Office of Special Populations and Research Training sponsors activities aimed at eliminating the continuing health disparities among these populations. The Office also develops innovative training initiatives to increase the number of minority scientists by supporting undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate research training in immunologic and infectious diseases. NIAID research results are disseminated to underserved minority communities through the Institute's outreach activities, which have focused to date on AIDS, asthma, and autoimmune diseases.
During FY 2000, NIAID completed a strategic plan, Planning for the 21st Century, which describes the broad-based Institute priorities that will channel NIAID programs, policies, and initiatives through the next 3 to 5 years. Although the plan framework centers on four cornerstones - immune-mediated diseases (and immune tolerance), AIDS, emerging infectious diseases, and vaccines - considerable synergy exists within that framework. The Strategic Plan can be accessed at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/strategicplan/pdf/splan.pdf.

Important Events in NIAID History

1948 – The National Microbiological Institute was established November 1. The Rocky Mountain Laboratory and the Biologics Control Laboratory, both dating to 1902, were incorporated into the new institute, together with the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Division of Tropical Diseases of NIH.

1951 – An institute-supported grants program was initiated, and a branch was established to administer research, training, and fellowship grants. Grant applications were reviewed by the National Advisory Health Council until 1956.

1953 – The Clinical Research Branch was renamed the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation.

1955 – The National Microbiological Institute became the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases on December 29. The Biologics Control Laboratory was detached from the institute and expanded to division status within NIH.

1956 – The first meeting of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council was held March 7-8.

1957 – The Laboratory of Immunology was established in January to meet the growing need for research on the mechanisms of allergy and immunology.

The Middle America Research Unit was established in the Canal Zone jointly by NIAID and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research as a temporary field station, made permanent in 1961. Important tropical diseases studies were done there for 15 years. NIAID transferred its part of the program to the Gorgas Memorial Institute in 1972.

1959 – The Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases was established, formerly a part of the Division of Tropical Diseases.

1962 – A collaborative research program funded mainly by contracts was established within the institute to plan, coordinate, and direct nationwide projects on infectious diseases, vaccine development, transplantation immunology, research reagents, and antiviral substances.

1967 – The Laboratory of Viral Diseases was established.

1968 – With the dissolution of NIH’s Office of International Research and creation of the Fogarty International Center on July 1, 1968, programs formerly managed by OIR were transferred to NIAID to be administered by the Geographic Medicine Branch. These included the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program – initiated in 1965 by the President and the Japanese Prime Minister to explore the health problems of Asia, and the International Centers for Medical Research and Training – a 1960 congressional initiative to advance the status of U.S. health sciences through international research.

1971 – The first seven Allergic Disease Centers were established to translate basic concepts of the biomedical sciences into clinical investigations.

1974 – The first centers for the study of sexually transmitted diseases and of influenza were established.

1977 – The NIAID Extramural Research Program was reorganized into three areas: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Immunology, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases; and Extramural Activities. An intramural Laboratory of Immunogenetics was formed.

1978 – The first maximum containment facility (P4) for recombinant DNA research was opened in Frederick, Md. International program project grants and international exploratory/development research grants programs were established. Centers were created for interdisciplinary research on immunologic diseases.

1979 – The Office of Recombinant DNA Activities was transferred from the NIGMS to NIAID. The International Collaboration in Infectious Diseases Research Program superseded the International Centers for Medical Research and Training established in 1960.

The Rocky Mountain Laboratory was reorganized into the Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases to deal with both host and viral mechanisms leading to slow or persistent viral infections; the Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, directed at bacterial diseases, particularly sexually transmitted diseases; and an Epidemiology Branch.

1980 – The Laboratory of Immunoregulation was established to provide a means for applying new knowledge in immunology to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with immunological disorders.

1981 – The Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology was created to exploit new techniques in recombinant DNA methodology and other molecular studies to expand the institute’s interests in both bacterial and viral pathogenesis and virulence.

1984 – The Office of Tropical Medicine and International Research (OTMIR) was established to coordinate NIAID’s intramural and extramural research activities in tropical medicine and other international research. OTMIR works with other Federal agencies and international organizations active in these areas.

1985 – The Laboratory of Immunopathology was established. At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, the Epidemiology Branch was renamed the Laboratory of Pathology.

1986 – An Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program was established in January to coordinate the institute’s extramural research efforts in HIV/AIDS.

1987 – The Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology was established.

1988 – The Immunology, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases Program was reorganized and renamed the Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Program.

The Office of Recombinant DNA Activities transferred from NIAID to the NIH Office of the Director.

1989 – NIAID’s programs became divisions: Intramural Research; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; and Extramural Activities.

1990 – At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, a section of the Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function became the Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites. The name of the Laboratory of Pathobiology was changed to the Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens.

1991 – The Laboratory of Host Defenses was established.

1994 – The Laboratory of Allergic Diseases was established.

The Office of Research on Minority and Women’s Health was created.

At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, the Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens was renamed the Microscopy Branch.

1999 – The Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center was launched – a research program jointly funded by NIAID, NCI, and the NIH Office of AIDS Research.

NIAID Legislative Chronology

November 1, 1948 – The National Microbiological Institute was established under authority of section 202 of the Public Health Service Act, as implemented by General Circular No. 55, Organization Order No. 20, dated October 8, 1948.

December 29, 1955 – NIAID was established (replacing the National Microbiological Institute) under authority of the Omnibus Medical Research Act (P.L. 81-692, 64 Stat. L. 443) as implemented by PHS Briefing Memorandum of November 4, 1955, from the Surgeon General to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

November 4, 1988 – NIAID was provided with additional authorities under title II of the Health Omnibus Programs Extension Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-607), the first major law to address AIDS research, information, education, and prevention.

August 14, 1991 – The PHS act (P.L. 102-96), the “Terry Beirn Community Based AIDS Research Initiative Act of 1991” reauthorized NIAID’s Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) for another 5 years.

June 10, 1993 – The PHS act was amended by P.L. 103-43, the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993. This comprehensive legislation required NIAID to include research on tropical diseases in its mission statement and directed the Secretary, DHHS, to ensure that individuals with expertise in chronic fatigue syndrome or neuromuscular diseases are appointed to appropriate NIH advisory committees.

December 14, 1993 – The Preventive Health Amendments of 1993 were passed, which included provisions requiring the director, NIAID, to conduct or support research and research training regarding the cause, early detection, prevention, and treatment of tuberculosis. (The institute already had authority to conduct such research under its authorities in Title IV, PHS act.)

October 7, 1998 – Rep. Anne Northup (Ky.), on behalf of herself and Rep. Bill Young (Fla.), introduced H.C.R. 335, a resolution recognizing NIAID’s 50th anniversary. On October 9, Sen. Richard Durbin (Ill.), on behalf of himself and Sen. Connie Mack (Fla.), introduced a companion measure, S.C.R. 127. Both pieces of legislation were submitted to “demonstrate the support of the U.S. Congress for the NIAID, the NIH and all of the dedicated professionals who have devoted their lives to improving the quality of the Nation’s health.”

Biographical Sketch of NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.

Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., became the Director of NIAID in 1984. He was born in Brooklyn, New York, and received his undergraduate degree from Holy Cross College in 1962 and his medical degree from Cornell University Medical College in 1966. He completed his internship and residency at The New York Hospital Cornell Medical Center and joined NIAID in 1968 as a clinical associate in the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation. In 1980, Dr. Fauci became Chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, a post he continues to hold.

Dr. Fauci has made many contributions to basic and clinical research on the pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated and infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. During his career as a biomedical researcher, Dr. Fauci has authored, co-authored, or edited more than 970 scientific publications. He has served as a visiting professor at medical centers throughout the country and has delivered many major lectures at institutions and conferences all over the world.

Dr. Fauci is a member of many prestigious professional organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences, Royal Danish Academy of Science and Letters, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, where he is a Council Member. He serves on a number of editorial boards and has received numerous awards for his scientific accomplishments, including 20 honorary doctorate degrees.

Directors of NIAID

Name
Date of Birth
In Office From
To
Victor H. Haas Jan. 6, 1909 Nov. 1, 1948 April 1957
Justin M. Andrews Aug. 28, 1902 April 1957 Oct. 1, 1964
Dorland J. Davis July 2, 1911 Oct. 1, 1964 August 1975
Richard M. Krause Jan. 4, 1925 August 1975 July 1984
Anthony S. Fauci Dec. 24, 1940 November 1984  

Research Programs

NIAID is composed of four extramural divisions: the Division of AIDS; the Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation; the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; and the Division of Extramural Activities. In addition, NIAID scientists conduct intramural research in laboratories located in Bethesda, Rockville and Frederick, Maryland, and in Hamilton, Montana. More information on NIAID programs, committees, and initiatives can be found on NIAID's web site at www.niaid.nih.gov.

Division of AIDS

The Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS) was formed in 1986 to address the national research needs created by the advent and spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, DAID's mission is to increase basic knowledge of the pathogenesis, natural history, and transmission of HIV disease and to support research that promotes progress in its detection, treatment, and prevention. DAIDS accomplishes this through planning, implementing, managing, and evaluating programs in (1) fundamental basic research, (2) discovery and development of therapies for HIV infection and its complications, and (3) discovery and development of vaccines and other prevention strategies.

Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

The Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) supports extramural research to control and prevent diseases caused by virtually all human infectious agents except HIV. DMID supports a wide variety of projects spanning the spectrum from basic biomedical research, such as studies of microbial physiology and antigenic structure, through applied research, including the development of diagnostic tests, experimental drugs and vaccines, to conduct of clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of new disease prevention strategies. NIAID also funds projects to sequence the full genomes of a number of medically important microbes, which can be exploited in many ways, for example, to trace microbial evolution, to locate targets for vaccine and drug development, and to identify mutations that contribute to drug resistance.

Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation

The Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT) supports research that focuses on enhancing understanding of the important role of the immune system in the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of many immune-mediated diseases, including: asthma and allergic diseases; autoimmune disorders, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosis; inherited primary immunodeficiency diseases; and the transplantation of solid organs, tissues, and cells.

Division of Intramural Research

The Division of Intramural Research (DIR) conducts all of the in-house research undertaken by the Institute. DIR is composed of 15 laboratories and 3 branches involved in scientific research programs that cover a wide range of disciplines in biomedical research relating to immunology, allergy, and infectious diseases. This includes the subdisciplines of virology, microbiology, biochemistry, parasitology, epidemiology, mycology, molecular biology, immunology, immunopathology, and immunogenetics. In addition, DIR supports a large clinical effort to conduct patient-centered research in allergy, immunology, and infectious diseases. Thomas Kindt, Ph.D., director

Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center

The Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institutes of Health was established to facilitate research in vaccine development. The VRC is dedicated to improving global human health through the rigorous pursuit of effective vaccines for human diseases. Established by former President Bill Clinton as part of an initiative to develop an AIDS vaccine, the VRC is a unique venture within the NIH intramural research program. Gary Nabel, M.D., Ph.D., director

NIAID Appropriations – Grants and Direct Operations

Fiscal year
Total grants
Direct operations
Total
(Amounts in thousands of dollars)
1954
$2,067
$3,671
$5,738
1955
2,227
3,593
6,180
1956
2,227
5,548
7,775
1957
8,182
5,117
13,299
1958
11,591
5,809
17,400
1959
1,7091
6,980
24,071
1960
26,280
7,774
34,054
1961
35,141
8,859
44,000
1962
43,900
12,191
56,091
1963
49,256
16,886
66,142
1964
51,175
17,448
68,723
1965
51,288
18,559
69,847
1966
56,062
21,925
77,987
1967
64,809
25,861
90,670
1968
66,454
27,968
94,422
1969
66,086
28,754
96,840
1970
74,248
29,446
103,694
1971
70,285
32,083
102,368
1972
75,486
33,689
109,175
1973
78,557
34,857
113,414
1974
76,908
39,092
114,000
1975
78,093
41,359
119,452
1976
8,2390
44,462
126,852
1977
90,928
50,272
141,200
1978
106,318
56,023
162,341
1979
130,340
60,988
191,328
1980
153,010
62,354
215,364
1981
168,154
63,923
232,077
1982
169,690
66,205
235,895
1983
199,289
79,840
279,129
1984
226,407
93,189
319,596
1985
267,940
102,107
370,047
1986
266,928
100,214
367,142
1987
367,076
178,357
545,433
1988
458,445
180,076
638,521
1989
517,159
226,993
744,152
1990
568,986
263,991
832,977
1991
606,138
300,113
906,251
1992
643,115
316,799
959,914
1993
685,661
298,566
984,227
1994
716,336
347,360
1,063,696
1995
733,935
358,572
1,092,507
1996
781,340
365,127
1,171,160
1997
896,510
361,283
1,257,793
1998
984,308
367,811
1,352,119
1999
1,128,119
437,082
1,565,201
2000
1,318,075
459,079
1,777,154
 
This page was last reviewed on July 15, 2002 .

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