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NIH Almanac - Organization

Contents
About the Almanac
Historical Data
Organization
Appropriations
Staff
Major NIH Lectures
Nobel Laureates
Past Issues
NIEHS logo   National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Research Triangle Park, N.C.
Mission | Important Events | Director | Programs | Appropriations

Mission

Asthma, bronchitis, cancer, dermatitis, and on through the alphabet to zinc deficiencies – these diseases generally result from interactions of environmental exposures, individual susceptibilities, and time, or age. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) works to reduce environment-related illnesses and dysfunctions by understanding each element in their development and how they interrelate. The research of NIEHS, with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) headquartered at the Institute, has helped eliminate, reduce or control many hazards: lead, mercury, asbestos and many industrial chemicals, food dyes and agricultural chemicals. NIEHS research has also begun to unravel the causes of disease at a cellular level.

In fact, scientists believe a time is coming when they will be able to pinpoint the exact molecular step when environmental exposures tip a normal cell’s balance toward rampant growth or other changes that lead to cell death or disease. The institute, through its emphasis on toxicogenomics, is a leader in the effort to locate these disease points – and to thus enable medicine to prevent or correct disease states. As part of this effort, the institute studies individual susceptibility to environmental and other factors through the Environmental Genome Project.

NIEHS supports training in environmental toxicology, pathology, mutagenesis, epidemiology and biostatistics, with emphasis on attracting women and minorities. The institute also funds basic and applied research on the health effects of human exposure to potentially toxic or harmful environmental agents. Its communication strategies include training, education, technology transfer, community outreach, and news and information for the general public.

NIEHS and NTP also support efforts to develop, test, and validate alternative, biological and gene-based assay systems that can augment or substitute for rodent testing in predicting the toxic effects of substances in humans. NIEHS/NTP testing helps the public and private agencies and organizations that develop regulations, policies, and procedures to prevent or reduce environmentally induced diseases.

Important Events in NIEHS History

June 7, 1960 – A study group on the Public Health Service mission and organization states that environmental health problems require increased public and private effort, and predicts that a central laboratory facility would be needed.

January 1961 – A proposal prepared by PHS recommends establishment of an environmental health center.

November 1, 1961 – The Committee on Environmental Health Problems recommends to PHS that a national center be established to undertake integrated research and other activities related to environmental health.

September 1964 – In the wake of the best-selling book by Rachel Carson, Silent Spring – which forecast the deaths of birds and possibly people from the use of persistent chemicals – Congress authorizes funds to plan a central environmental health research facility.

January 7, 1965 – The Surgeon General announces, following a site selection committee’s recommendation, that Research Triangle Park in North Carolina would be the location of the National Environmental Health Sciences Center.

April 13, 1965 – A National Environmental Health Advisory Committee group recommends that the proposed center be operated by PHS.

November 1, 1966 – The Surgeon General announces the establishment of the Division of Environmental Health Sciences as a part of NIH.

September 26, 1967 – A deed for 509.25 acres within Research Triangle Park, N.C., is presented to the Surgeon General for a permanent site for the Division of Environmental Health Sciences.

January 12, 1969 – The Secretary of the then-Department of Health, Education and Welfare elevates the division to institute status – as the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

April 1972 – The first edition of Environmental Health Perspectives, an NIEHS scientific journal, is issued.

April 1977 – Construction begins on NIEHS’ $65.7 million facility.

November 15, 1978 – HEW Secretary Califano announces the establishment of the National Toxicology Program.

July 14, 1981 – HHS Secretary Schweiker approves the reorganization of NIEHS, transferring the National Cancer Institute’s Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention bioassay program to NIEHS.

October 5, 1981 – The National Toxicology Program is made a permanent activity of HHS.

November 20, 1985 – NIEHS is established in law by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-158).

October 10, 1994 – Martin Rodbell, NIEHS scientist emeritus and former scientific director, is named co-recipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in discovering G-proteins, which transmit signals between cells.

September 14, 1994 – NIEHS and collaborators at the University of Utah announce identification of the first breast cancer gene, BRCA1.

May 12, 1995 – NIEHS announces isolation and cloning of a gene that suppresses the spread of prostate cancer.

December 6, 1995 – Experiments conducted by NIEHS researchers show that phenolphthalein, a widely used laxative, causes ovarian and other cancers in laboratory rats and mice.

February 6, 1996 – NIEHS scientists report that people who are missing the gene GST11 are more likely to get myelodysplastic syndrome, or MDS – a serious, often fatal, bone marrow disease.

July 2, 1996 – NIEHS researchers find that women who douche more than once a week are about 30 percent less likely to conceive in a given month than those who do not.

October 29, 1996 – The newly completed four-story laboratory “F Module” is dedicated on the celebration of NIEHS’ 30th anniversary.

October 17-18, 1997 – NIEHS’ Environmental Genome Project is announced to an international audience of scientists. The project is described as one to explore the gene variations (called “polymorphisms,” which means “many forms”) that influence people’s susceptibility to environmental exposures that cause disease in some people, none in others.

1998 – NIEHS’ Marine and Freshwater Research Centers and the U.S. Navy sponsor the ocean-theme United States Pavilion, complete with an iceberg, at the World Expo in Lisbon, Portugal.

August 10, 1998 – NIEHS and the Environmental Protection Agency jointly fund the creation of eight Children’s Environmental Health Research Centers.

June 22, 1999 – The new Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods – a group formed by NIEHS, the National Toxicology Program (which is headquartered at NIEHS) and other health and regulatory agencies – for the first time concludes that, in many chemical tests, a non-animal test can replace the use of laboratory animals in a key test of whether a chemical is likely to burn or corrode human skin. Acceptance of this alternative test is followed on December 28, 1999 by acceptance by regulatory agencies of the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay for products causing allergic contact dermatitis, a chance likely to reduce, by thousands, the number of guinea pigs used in testing.

May 9, 2000 – The First National Allergen Survey, led by NIEHS scientists in collaboration with the Department of Housing and Urban Development, finds more than 45 percent of U.S. housing stock has bedding with dust mite allergen concentrations that exceed 2 microgram per gram of dust, a level associated with the development of allergies.

Biographical Sketch of NIEHS Director Kenneth Olden, Ph.D.

A widely-published cell biologist, Dr. Olden was appointed director of NIEHS and of the National Toxicology Program (which has its headquarters at NIEHS) on June 18, 1991. He came to the institute from Howard University College of Medicine in Washngton, D.C., where he had been director of the university’s cancer center, and professor and chairman of the medical school department of oncology since 1985.

Prior to his appointment at Howard, he was a research scientist from 1974 to 1979 in the National Cancer Institute’s Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis. Before coming to NIH, Dr. Olden spent 4 years as a research fellow and instructor of physiology at Harvard Medical School.

Dr. Olden received his B.S. in biology in 1960 from Knoxville College, his M.S. in 1964 from the University of Michigan, and his Ph.D., in 1970 from Temple University in Philadelphia.

Born in Parrottsville, Tenn., he has written many basic science articles, and while at Howard medical center, held a number of grants from NIH. He published two of the “One Hundred Most Cited” papers in 1978-79, one of which – on the subject of cancer cell biology – is now a “Citation Classic.”

In addition to being NIEHS director, Dr. Olden is also director of the NTP, a cooperative effort within HHS to strengthen the Federal science base in toxicology and to coordinate the toxicological research and testing activities of the four PHS agencies.

Because of outstanding contributions in his field, Dr. Olden was elected to membership in the NAS Institute of Medicine in 1994. He received the HHS Secretary’s Distinguished Service Award in 1995. In 1996 he received the City of Medicine Award in recognition of extraordinary achievement in the medical and health care research fields. Additionally, Dr. Olden has been the recipient of the Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award and the Presidential Distinguished Executive Award in October 1996 and October 1997, respectively. These are awarded by the President to recognize Senior Executive Service Federal Government employees for sustained extraordinary career accomplishments. Also in 1997, the National Association of Physicians for the Environment gave him its inaugural Award for Public Policy Leadership for “remarkable leadership” of NIEHS. In 1998, he was named one of “Ten to Watch” by the Raleigh News & Observer. In 2000, he was honored by the Children’s Health Environmental Coalition for his “leadership role in children’s environmental health research.”

NIEHS Directors

Name
In Office From
To
Paul Kotin Nov. 1, 1966 Feb. 28 1971
David P. Rall Mar. 1, 1971 Oct. 1, 1990
David G. Hoel (Acting) October 1990 June 1991
Kenneth Olden June 18, 1991

Major Programs

Through its research programs, NIEHS is providing a science base for protecting the health of Americans by preventing environmentally related diseases.

The growth of population and technology can increase environmental contamination problems, as can new forms of energy production, expanded uses of plastics and aerosols, and greater development of the chemical industry. Recent experiences with asbestos, mercury, vinyl chloride, bischloromethyl ether, methyl butyl ketone, sulfuric acid mist, polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls, kepone, dioxins, methylisocynate, and chlorophenol indicate these compounds are not theoretical threats but real causes of illness and death.

NIEHS’ Division of Extramural Research and Training supports investigators at colleges, universities, and research foundations through individual research grants, program project grants and other support mechanisms. These research activities provide information essential to an understanding of the way in which human health is adversely affected by chemical, physical and other environmental factors. The breadth of the institute’s mission dictates a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving which involves major biological, chemical, and physical science disciplines.

Through this division, the institute supports basic and applied research on the consequences of the exposure of humans to potentially toxic or harmful agents in the environment.

Environmental Health Sciences Centers. These centers, at universities throughout the country, support multidisciplinary research in environmental health problems. They fill critical needs in the national environmental health program that cannot be met by individual research grants or program project grants. Each center has a different thrust and problem orientation. Overall, they serve as national focal points and resources for research and manpower development in health problems related to air, water and food pollution occupational and industrial health and safety heavy metal toxicity agricultural chemical hazards and the relationships of environment to cancer, birth defects, behavioral anomalies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and diseases of other organs.

Much of the research conducted by the centers, in addition to substantive contributions to preventive medicine, has served to clarify the scope of environmental health problems and future needs in this field.

Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Centers foster multidisciplinary research on marine and freshwater organisms in the study of mechanisms of toxicity of environmental agents, as models for human diseases and disorders resulting from exposure to environmental toxicants.

Research Manpower Development Programs support pre- and postdoctoral training in toxicology, pathology, mutagenesis, and epidemiology and biostatistics as they pertain to the environment. Three mechanisms are used to fund training: 1) institutional awards for pre- and postdoctoral trainees (training programs); 2) individual awards for postdoctoral fellows only (fellowship awards); and 3) senior fellowship awards to support training for new research oriented physician-researchers to enhance the teaching of environmental and occupational medicine. The division uses the environmental/occupational medicine academic award for curriculum and institutional resource development.

The Superfund Basic Research Program is university-based basic research supported by NIEHS under the 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The program combines basic research in ecology, engineering, and hydrogeology into a core program of biomedical research to provide a broader and more detailed body of scientific information to be used in decisionmaking related to the management of hazardous substances.

The Division of Intramural Research conducts basic, applied, and clinical research directed toward increasing fundamental knowledge of environmentally related diseases and disorders. Broad approaches are used, including basic mechanistic studies at the cellular and molecular level, applied toxicology testing, and clinical and epidemiology studies. Intramural scientists address such complex research issues as genetic susceptibility, receptor mediated pathobiology, differentiation and development, signal transduction, environmental regulation of cell proliferation and cell death, environmental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, and environmental epidemiology.

These research endeavors, in turn, support such biomedical and clinical program interests as the environmental contributions to aging and age-related diseases and conditions (e.g., neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, osteoporosis, cancer of the breast, prostate, endometrium and lung), environmental factors and respiratory disease (e.g., asthma and respiratory fibrosis), environmental contribution to reproductive and developmental disorders (e.g., infertility, abnormal growth and development, reproductive senescence), and how environmental factors interact with proteins and other cellular responses (e.g., abnormal hormonal influences and structures of critical cellular molecules that are targets of environmental factors).

DIR pursues its scientific goals principally through its laboratories and branches in three scientific programs: the Environmental Biology and Medicine Program, the Environmental Carcinogenesis Program, and the Environmental Toxicology Program.

NIEHS Appropriations – Grants and Direct Operations

Fiscal year
Total grants
Direct operations
Total
(Amounts in thousands of dollars)
1967
$10,389
$2,841
$24,2981
1968
13,166
4,123
17,289
1969
12,498
6,322
17,820
1970
12,232
6,096
18,328
1971
13,099
7,521
20,620
1972
16,131
10,305
26,436
1973
19,728
11,228
30,9562
1974
17,613
11,266
28,879
1975
20,877
14,072
34,949
1976
20,908
16,752
3,7660
1977
28,878
21,263
51,141
1978
37,120
27,121
64,241
1979
43,415
34,665
78,080
1980
45,751
38,142
83,893
1981
49,990
43,501
93,491
1982
50,035
56,235
106,270
1983
60,747
101,120
164,867
1984
68,883
111,714
180,597
1985
78,523
115,963
194,486
1986
79,238
109,748
188,986
1987
89,803
119,491
209,294
1988
90,198
125,468
215,666
1989
92,929
130,757
223,686
1990
97,006
131,733
228,739
1991
103,998
136,637
240,635
1992
113,231
138,800
252,031
1993
115,705
135,479
251,187
1994
129,239
135,010
264,249
1995
130,212
141,870
272,082
1996
139,670
147,944
287,614
1997
149,399
158,163
307,562
1998
160,692
169,416
330,108
1999
188,026
187,468
375,494
2000
224,642
217,807
442,449
20013
319,209
245,705
564,915

1 Includes transfer of $11,068,000 to Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control.
2 No appropriation available. This figure is the amount authorized.
3 Includes Superfund. This is the first year NIEHS received direct funding for its Superfund research program.

 
This page was last reviewed on July 15, 2002 .

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