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NIH Almanac - Nobel Laureates

Contents
About the Almanac
Historical Data
Organization
Appropriations
Staff
Major NIH Lectures
Nobel Laureates
Past Issues
Nobel Laureates
Read about the NIH Scientists who have won Nobel prizes.
Laureate
Field
Year
Supporting NIH Institute(s)
Dr. Richard Axel, U.S.A., and Dr. Linda B. Buck, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine
2004
NIDCD, NCI, NIAID, NIMH, NINDS, NIDDK
Irwin A. Rose, U.S.A., Avram Hershko, Israel (shared with Aaron Ciechanover, Israel) Chemistry
2004
NIAMD, NCI, NIAAA, NIGMS, NIDDK
Dr. Roderick MacKinnon , U.S.A., and Dr. Peter Agre, U.S.A. Chemistry
2003
NHLBI, NEI, NIAAA, NIGMS, NCRR, NINDS, NIDDK
Paul C. Lauterbur, U.S.A. (shared with P. Mansfield, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 2003 NCRR, NCI, NHLBI, NIGMS, NIMH
John B. Fenn, U.S.A. (shared with K. Tanaka, Japan and K. Wüthrich, Switzerland Chemistry
2002
NIGMS
H. Robert Horvitz, U.S.A. (shared with S. Brenner, U.S.A. and J.E. Sulston, U.K.) Physiology or medicine
2002
NIGMS, NCI, NICHD
Leland H. Hartwell, U.S.A. (shared with P.M. Nurse and R.T. Hunt, U.K.) Physiology or medicine
2001
NIGMS, NCI, NCRR
K. Barry Sharpless, U.S.A. (shared with W.S. Knowles, U.S.A. and R. Noyori, Japan) Chemistry
2001
NIGMS, NHLBI
Paul Greengard, U.S.A. (shared with E. Kandel, U.S.A. and A. Carlsson, Sweden) Physiology or medicine
2000
NIMH, NIA, NIDA, NINDS, NIAAA, NHLBI, NIAMS
Erik R. Kandel, U.S.A. (shared with P. Greengard, U.S.A. and A. Carlsson, Sweden)
"
2000
NIMH, NIGMS, NINDS, NCRR
James J. Heckman, U.S.A. (shared with D. McFadden, U.S.A.) Economic sciences
2000
NICHD, NIMH
Daniel L. McFadden, U.S.A. (shared with J. Heckman, U.S.A.)
"
2000
NIA
Günter Blobel, U.S.A. Physiology or medicine
1999
NIGMS, NCI
Robert Furchgott, U.S.A. (shared with L. Ignarro and F. Murad, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1998
NIGMS, NHLBI, NINDS
Louis Ignarro, U.S.A. (shared with F. Murad and R. Furchgott, U.S. A.)
"
1998
NHLBI, NIAMS, NICHD
Ferid Murad, U.S.A. (shared with L. Ignarro and R. Furchgott, U.S.A.)
"
1998
NIGMS, NHLBI, NIDDK
Paul D. Boyer, U.S.A. (shared with J.C. Skou, ) Chemistry
1997
NIGMS, NIDDK
Jens C. Skou, Denmark (shared with P.D. Boyer)
"
1997
NINDS
Stanley B. Prusiner, U.S.A. Physiology or medicine Physiology or medicine
1997
NINDS, NIA, NCRR, NIGMS
Edward B. Lewis, U.S.A. (shared with C. Nusslein-Volhard, Germany, and E.F. Wieschaus, U.S.A.)
"
1995
NICHD, NIGMS
Eric F. Wieschaus, U.S.A. (shared with E.B. Lewis, U.S.A., and C. Nusslein-Volhard, Germany)
"
1995
NICHD
Alfred G. Gilman, U.S.A. (shared with M. Rodbell, U.S.A.)
"
1994
NIGMS, NINDS
Martin Rodbell, U.S.A. (shared with A.G. Gilman, U.S.A.)
"
1994
NIEHS, NIDDK
George A. Olah, U.S.A. Chemistry
1994
NCI, NIGMS
Phillip A. Sharp, U.S.A. (shared with R. Roberts, U.K.) Physiology or medicine
1993
NIGMS, NCI, NIAID, DRS, NCRR
Richard Roberts, U.K. (shared with P.A. Sharp, U.S.A.)
"
1993
NCRR, NLM, NCHGR, NCI, NIGMS
Kary B. Mullis, U.S.A. (shared with M. Smith, Canada) Chemistry
1993
NHBLI, NIAID, NIGMS
Michael Smith, Canada (shared with K.B. Mullis, U.S.A.)
"
1993
NIGMS
Edwin G. Krebs, U.S.A (shared with E.H. Fisher, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1992
NIDDK, NIGMS, NIAMS
Edmond H. Fisher, U.S.A. (shared with E.G. Krebs, U.S.A.)
"
1992
NIDDK, NIGMS, NIAMS
Gary Becker, U.S.A. Economics
1992
NICHD
Elias J. Corey, U.S.A. Chemistry
1990
NIGMS, NCRR, NCI, NHLBI, NIAID
E. Donnall Thomas, U.S.A. (shared with J.E. Murray, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1990
NCI, NIAID, NIDDK
Joseph E. Murray, U.S.A. (shared with E.D. Thomas, U.S.A.)
"
1990
NHLBI, NIAID
Sidney Altman, U.S.A. (shared with T. Cech, U.S.A.) Chemistry
1989
NIGMS, NICHD
Thomas Cech, U.S.A. (shared with S. Altman, U.S.A.)
"
1989
NIGMS, NCI
J. Michael Bishop, U.S.A (shared with H.E. Varmus, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1989
NCI
Harold E. Varmus, U.S.A. (shared with J.M. Bishop, U.S.A.)
"
1989
NCI, NIAID
Susumu Tonegawa, Japan "
1987
NIAID
Donald J. Cram, U.S.A. (shared with C.J. Pederson, U.S.A., and Jean-Marie Lehn, France) Chemistry
1987
NIGMS
Stanley Cohen, U.S.A. (shared with R. Levi-Montalcini, U.S.A./Italy) Physiology or medicine
1986
NICHD, NIGMS
Rita Levi-Montalcini, U.S.A./Italy (shared with S. Cohen, U.S.A.)
"
1986
NIMH, NINDS
Herbert A. Hauptman, U.S.A. (shared with J. Karle, U.S.A.) Chemistry
1985
NIGMS, NIADDK, NHLBI, DRR
Michael S. Brown, U.S.A. (shared with J.L. Goldstein, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1985
NHLBI, NIGMS, DRR
Joseph L. Goldstein, U.S.A. (shared with M.S. Brown, U.S.A.)
"
1985
NHLBI, NIGMS, DRR
R. Bruce Merrifield, U.S.A. Chemistry
1984
NIDDK
Henry Taube, U.S.A.
"
1983
NIGMS
Sune Bergstrom, Sweden (shared with J. R. Vane, U.K. and B. Samuelsson, Sweden) Physiology or medicine
1982
NHLBI, NLM, NICHD
John R. Vane, U.K. (shared with S. Bergstrom and B. Samuelsson, Sweden)
"
1982
DRG, NIGMS, NIMH
Aaron Klug, U.K. Chemistry 1982 NIAID  
 
Roald Hoffmann, U.S.A. (shared with K. Fukui, Japan)
"
1981
NIGMS
David H. Hubel, U.S.A. (shared with T. N. Wiesel, U.S.A./Sweden, and R. W. Sperry, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1981
NEI, NIGMS, NINDS, DRR
Torsten N. Wiesel, U.S.A./Sweden (shared with D. H. Hubel and R. W. Sperry, U.S.A.)
"
1981
NEI, DRR, NINDS
Paul Berg, U.S.A. (shared with W. Gilbert, U.S.A., and F. Sanger, U.K.) Chemistry
1980
NIGMS, NCI
Walter Gilbert, U.S.A. (shared with P. Berg, U.S.A., and F. Sanger, U.K.)
"
1980
NIGMS, NIDDK
Baruj Benacerraf, U.S.A. (shared with G. D. Snell, U.S.A., and J. Dausset, France) Physiology or medicine
1980
NIAID, NCI
George D. Snell, U.S.A. (shared with B. Benacerraf, U.S.A., and J. Dausset, France)
"
1980
NIAID, NCI
Jean Dausset, France (shared with B. Benacerraf and G. D. Snell, U.S.A.)
"
1980
NIAID, NCI
Herbert C. Brown, U.S.A. (shared with G. Wittig, W. Germany) Chemistry
1979
NIGMS
Hamilton O. Smith, U.S.A. (shared with D. Nathans, U.S.A., and W. Arber, Switzerland) Physiology or medicine
1978
NIGMS, NIAID
Daniel Nathans, U.S.A. (shared with H. O. Smith, U.S.A., and W. Arber, Switzerland)
"
1978
NIGMS, NCI
Roger C. L. Guillemin, U.S.A. (shared with A. V. Schally and R. S. Yalow, U.S.A.)
"
1977
NIDDK, NICHD, DRR
Andrew V. Schally, U.S.A. (shared with R. C. L. Guillemin and R. S. Yalow, U.S.A.)
"
1977
NIDDK, NICHD, NIGMS
D. Carleton Gajdusek, U.S.A. (shared with B. S. Blumberg, U.S.A.)
"
1976
NINDS
Baruch S. Blumberg, U.S.A. (shared with D. C. Gajdusek, U.S.A.)
"
1976
NHLBI, NCI
William N. Lipscomb, U.S.A Chemistry
1976
NIGMS, DRG
David Baltimore, U.S.A. (shared with R. Dulbecco and H. M. Temin, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1975
NIAID, NCI
Renato Dulbecco, U.S.A. (shared with D. Baltimore and H. M. Temin, U.S.A.)
"
1975
NIAID, NCI
Howard M. Temin, U.S.A. (shared with D. Baltimore and R. Dulbecco, U.S.A.)
"
1975
NCI
Albert Claude, Belgium (shared with C. de Duve, Belgium, and G. E. Palade, U.S.A.)
"
1974
NCI
George E. Palade, U.S.A. (shared with C. de Duve and A. Claude, Belgium)
"
1974
NHLBI, NIGMS
Christian de Duve, Belgium (shared with A. Claude, Belgium, and G. E. Palade, U.S.A.)
"
1974
NICHD, NIGMS, NHLBI, NIA
Gerald M. Edelman, U.S.A. (shared with R. R. Porter, U.K.)
"
1972
NIDDK, NIAID, NICHD
Rodney R. Porter, U.K. (shared with G. M. Edelman, U.S.A.) " 1972 NIAID
"
1972
NIAID
Christian B. Anfinsen, U.S.A. (shared with S. Moore and W. H. Stein, U.S.A.) Chemistry
1972
NHLBI, NIDDK
Stanford Moore, U.S.A. (shared with C. B. Anfinsen and W. H. Stein, U.S.A.)
"
1972
NIGMS, NINDS
William H. Stein, U.S.A. (shared with C. B. Anfinsen and S. Moore, U.S.A.)
"
1972
NIGMS
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., U.S.A Physiology or medicine
1971
NIGMS, NHLBI, NIDDK
Julius Axelrod, U.S.A. (shared with B. Katz, U.K., and U. von Euler, Sweden)
"
1970
NHLBI, NIMH
Ulf von Euler, Sweden (shared with J. Axelrod, U.S.A., and B. Katz, U.K.)
"
1970
NINDS
Luis Leloir, Argentina Chemistry
1970
NIGMS, NIAID
Max Delbruck, U.S.A. (shared with A. D. Hershey and S. Luria, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1969
NIGMS
Alfred D. Hershey, U.S.A. (shared with M. Delbruck and S. Luria, U.S.A.)
"
1969
NIGMS, NCI, NICHD
Salvador Luria, U.S.A. (shared with M. Delbruck and A. D. Hershey, U.S.A.)
"
1969
NIAID, NIGMS, NCI
Robert W. Holley, U.S.A. (shared with H. G. Khorana and M. W. Nirenberg, U.S.A.)
"
1968
NIGMS, NCI
H. Gobind Khorana, U.S.A. (shared with R. W. Holley and M. W. Nirenberg, U.S.A.)
"
1968
NIGMS, NCI, NIAID
Marshall W. Nirenberg, U.S.A. (shared with R. W. Holley and H. G. Khorana, U.S.A.)
"
1968
NHLBI
Lars Onsager, U.S.A.
Chemistry
1968
NIGMS
Haldan K. Hartline, U.S.A. (shared with G. Wald, U.S.A., and R. Granit, Sweden) Physiology or medicine
1967
NINDS, NEI
George Wald, U.S.A. (shared with H. K. Hartline, U.S.A., and R. Granit, Sweden)
"
1967
NINDS, NEI
Charles B. Huggins, U.S.A. (shared with P. Rous, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1966
NCI, NIDDK, NIGMS
Jacques L. Monod, France (shared with F. Jacob and A. Lwoff, France)
"
1965
NIAID
Robert B. Woodward, U.S.A. Chemistry
1965
NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG, NIDDK
Konrad Bloch, U.S.A. (shared with F. Lynen, Germany) Physiology or medicine
1964
NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG
James D. Watson, U.S.A. (shared with F. H. C. Crick and M. H. F. Wilkins, U.K.)
"
1962
NIGMS, NIDDK, NCI, DRR, NIAID
John C. Kendrew, U.K. (shared with M. F. Perutz, U.K.) Chemistry
1962
NIDDK
Melvin Calvin, U.S.A.
"
1961
DRG, NCI
Peter B. Medawar, U.K. (shared with F. M. Burnet, Australia) Physiology or medicine
1960
NIAID
Arthur Kornberg, U.S.A. (shared with S. Ochoa, U.S.A.)
"
1959
NIGMS, NIAID, NCI, NIDDK, NIA
Severo Ochoa, U.S.A. (shared with A. Kornberg, U.S.A.)
"
1959
NIDDK, NIGMS, NCI, DRG
George W. Beadle, U.S.A. (shared with J. Lederberg and E. L. Tatum, U.S.A.)
"
1958
NIGMS, NHLBI
Joshua Lederberg, U.S.A. (shared with G. W. Beadle and E. L. Tatum, U.S.A.
"
1958
NIGMS, NIAID, NINDS, NICHD, DRR, NCI
Edward L. Tatum, U.S.A. (shared with G. W. Beadle and J. Lederberg, U.S.A.)
"
1958
NIGMS, NCI
Dickinson W. Richards, Jr., U.S.A. (shared with A. Cournand, U.S.A., and W. Forssmann, Germany)
"
1956
NIDDK, NCI, NHLBI, NIGMS
Vincent du Vigneaud, U.S.A. Chemistry
1955
NHLBI, NCI, NIGMS, DRG
Thomas H. Weller, U.S.A. (shared with J. F. Enders and F. C. Robbins, U.S.A.) Physiology or medicine
1954
NIAID, NIGMS
Linus C. Pauling, U.S.A. Chemistry
1954
NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG, NIAID, NCI
Fritz A. Lipmann, U.S.A. (shared with H. A. Krebs, U.K.) Physiology or medicine
1953
NIGMS, NCI
Philip S. Hench, U.S.A. (shared with E. C. Kendall, U.S.A., and T. Reichstein, Switzerland)
"
1950
NIGMS
E. O. Lawrence, U.S.A. Physics
1939
NCI

NIH Scientists

1968 - Dr. Marshall W. Nirenberg, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the key to deciphering the genetic code. Dr. Nirenberg and two other researchers, working independently, with whom he shared the prize, made major advances in understanding the chemical mechanisms by which genetic language or information is translated into various proteins that determine the nature and characteristics of all living things. Dr. Nirenberg was the first NIH Nobelist and also the first Federal employee to receive a Nobel Prize.

1970 - Dr. Julius Axelrod, National Institute of Mental Health, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with two scientists from England and Sweden for independent research into the chemistry of nerve transmission. The three were cited for their "discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanisms for their storage, release and inactivation." Specifically, Dr. Axelrod found an enzyme that terminates the action of the nerve transmitter, noradrenaline. He also demonstrated that some antidepressant drugs act by preventing the reuptake of noradrenaline and thus prolong its action in the brain.

1972 - Dr. Christian B. Anfinsen (formerly with the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work "on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation." Dr. Anfinsen provided the first clue to the structure of ribonuclease by demonstrating that it is comprised of a single polypeptide chain. He and his colleagues at Rockefeller University (with whom he shared the prize) demonstrated that the information required to fold the polypeptide chain of ribonuclease into the specific three-dimensional form of the active enzyme resides in the sequence of amino acids. Therefore, it became clear that this protein could be synthesized in the laboratory by joining the proper amino acids in the correct order and then allowing the chain of amino acids to fold spontaneously. This led to the first synthesis of an enzyme from chemicals in the laboratory. Such studies are basic to an understanding of normal life processes as well as of inherited metabolic diseases.

1976 - Dr. D. Carleton Gajdusek, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg, of the Institute for Cancer Research in Philadelphia. They won the award for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. Dr. Blumberg was at NIH (with the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases) in the 1960s, and did part of his prizewinning research at NIH.

1994 - Dr. Martin Rodbell, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Dr. G. Alfred Gilman of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. Dr. Rodbell dis- covered in 1970 that signal transmission requires a cellular molecule called GTP. In 1977 Dr. Gillman identified the proteins to which GTP binds and named them "G proteins." They are a family of proteins bound to the cell surface membranes that serve as intermediaries between incoming signals and cellular proteins that respond to these signals. Dr. Rodbell conducted this research while an intramural scientist with the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (now NIDDK).

 
This page was last reviewed on November 1, 2004 .

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