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The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to reduce the burden of neurological disease - a burden borne by every age group, by every segment of society, by people all over the world. To this end, the Institute supports and conducts research on the healthy and diseased brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Hundreds of disorders afflict the nervous system. Common killers and disablers such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, epilepsy, and autism are well known. Other disorders we study may be known only to the patients and families affected, their doctors, and scientists who look to rare disorders for help in understanding the brain as well as treating more common diseases.
With our mission in mind, the NINDS has identified the following overall goals. In the coming years NINDS will:
1950 - On August 15 President Truman signed P.L. 81-692, establishing the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness.
1951 - NINDB received its first budget of $1,232,253.
1953 - The NINDB budget became a line item in the NIH budget.
1953-54 - An intramural program of clinical investigation was initiated, including medical neurology, surgical neurology, and electroencephalography. Training programs in neurology and ophthalmology were initiated.
1955 - Basic science training grants were initiated.
1956 - The intramural clinical investigations program was expanded to include work in ophthalmology.
1957 - Training programs in otolaryngology and pediatric neurology were begun.
Field investigations involving collaborative and cooperative clinical studies were begun and the initial phase of the Collaborative Perinatal Project was started.
1960 - The joint intramural basic research program of NINDB and NIMH was divided and organized into two basic research laboratory programs.
1961 - First program projects and clinical research centers in stroke and communicative disorders were supported.
1962 - Funds were appropriated for professional and technical information assistance. Training grants in neurosurgery and neuroradiology were initiated.
1963 - Developmental graduate training grants were initiated.
1965 - A head injury research program was established.
1966 - The stroke research program was expanded; additional grants for clinical research centers were awarded. An antiepileptic drug testing program was begun.
1967 - Vision outpatient research centers were established. A program of research in neural control mechanisms and prostheses was initiated.
1968 - The NINDS blindness program became the nucleus of the National Eye Institute. The institute was renamed the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke.
1969 - Research Building 36, dedicated by DHEW Secretary Robert H. Finch, was occupied by NINDS and NIMH research laboratories.
1971 - Programs in applied neurological research (epilepsy, head injury), infectious diseases, and biometry were added to the Collaborative and Field Research Division.
1973 - Two new communicative disorders programs were begun with establishment of a section on communicative disorders in the Collaborative and Field Research Division, and an intramural Laboratory of Neuro-Otolaryngology.
1974 - Laboratories for neuroimmunology and neuropharmacology were established.
1975 - NINDS was renamed the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke.
The institute reorganized into six units for intramural research, fundamental neurosciences, communicative disorders, neurological disorders, stroke and trauma, and extramural activities.
1976 - Dr. D. Carleton Gajdusek, chief, Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work on atypical slow viruses.
1979 - A neuroepidemiology section and a section of neurotoxicology were established within the Intramural Research Program. NINCDS substantially expanded extramural support of research studies using positron emission tomography.
1982 - The institute's Neurological Disorders Program was replaced by two new program units: convulsive, developmental, and neuromuscular disorders and demyelinating, atrophic, and dementing disorders.
1984 - NINCDS established the Senator Jacob Javits Neuroscience Awards, which provide research grant support for up to 7 years in the basic and clinical neurosciences and communicative sciences.
A Laboratory of Neurobiology and a Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology were established within the Intramural Research Program.
1986 - A Laboratory of Neural Regeneration and Implantation was established within the Intramural Research Program.
1987 - NINCDS programs were renamed divisions, reflecting major areas of research interest: communicative and neurosensory disorders; convulsive, developmental, and neuromuscular disorders; demyelinating, atrophic, and dementing disorders; fundamental neurosciences; stroke and trauma; extramural activities; and intramural research.
A Clinical Neuroscience Branch was established within the Division of Intramural Research.
1988 - The communicative disorders program became the nucleus of the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. NINCDS was renamed the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
1989 - On July 25 President Bush signed P.L. 101-58, declaring the 1990s the "Decade of the Brain."
1990 - A Stroke Branch was established within the Division of Intramural Research.
1998 - NINDS forms seven planning panels comprised of neuroscience leaders; panel members outline opportunities for research investment
1999 - NINDS publishes Neuroscience at the New Millennium: Priorities and Plans for the NINDS, Fiscal Years 2000-2001.
2001 - NINDS celebrates its 50th anniversary with a 2-day scientific symposium "Celebrating 50 Years of Brain Research: New Discoveries, New Hope."
August 15, 1950 - Public Law 81-692 established NINDB "for research on neurological diseases (including epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis) and blindness."
August 16, 1968 - Public Law 90-489 renamed the NINDB the National Institute of Neurological Diseases.
October 24, 1968 - Public Law 90-636 changed the name of the NIND to the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke.
October 25, 1972 - Public Law 92-564 established a temporary National Commission on Multiple Sclerosis supported by NINDS.
March 14, 1975 - Part 8 of a DHEW Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority was amended to change the title of NINDS to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke.
July 29, 1975 - Public Law 94-63 established two temporary commissions to be supported by NINCDS: Commission for the Control of Epilepsy and Its Consequences, and Commission for the Control of Huntington's Disease and Its Consequences.
October 28, 1988 - Public Law 100-553 changed the name of NINCDS to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
June 10, 1993 - Public Law 103-43 added language on Multiple Sclerosis research to the legislative mandate of the NINDS.
November 13, 1997 - Public Law 105-78, the Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease and Research Act, added language authorizing increased Parkinson's disease research and training, including research centers.
November 17, 2000 – Public Law 106-310, the Children's Health Act of 2000, amended the Public Health Service Act with regard to a wide range of issues affecting children's health. Specifically relevant to the NINDS mission, were authorizing provisions for the expansion of autism research, including research centers of excellence, and the establishment of an interagency Autism Coordinating Committee; the establishment of a Pediatric Research Initiative; the development of a pediatric research loan repayment program; the conduct of a national longitudinal study of environmental influences on children's health and development; the study of risk factors for childhood cancers, including malignant tumors of the central nervous system; and the support of research with respect to cognitive disorders and neurobehavioral consequences arising from traumatic brain injury; the expansion and coordination of muscular dystrophy research.
December 18, 2001 – Public Law 107-084, the Muscular Dystrophy Community Assistance, Research and Education Amendments of 2001, or the "MD-CARE Act," amended the Public Health Service Act to provide for the expansion and coordination of research with respect to various forms of muscular dystrophy, including the establishment of research centers of excellence and an interagency coordinating committee.
Dr. Landis has been Director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke since September 1, 2003. As Director, she oversees an annual budget of $1.5 billion and a staff of more than 900 scientists, physician-scientists, and administrators.
Dr. Landis received her B.A. in Biology from Wellesley College in 1967 and her master's degree (1970) and her Ph.D. (1973) from Harvard University. She held postdoctoral fellowships at the National Institute of Mental Health and Harvard Medical School and also held faculty positions at Harvard Medical School and Case Western Reserve University. At Case Western Reserve, she was responsible for the creation of a Department of Neurosciences. Under five years of her leadership, the program achieved worldwide acclaim and a reputation for excellence. In 1995, Dr. Landis joined the NINDS as Scientific Director and was responsible for the direction and excellence of research conducted in the Institute's intramural program.
Dr. Landis's own research is aimed at understanding how functional connections form in the developing nervous system. Starting with evidence of surprising plasticity and environmental influences obtained in cell culture systems, her work has focused on dissecting the cellular interactions that drive synapse formation in the peripheral nervous system and to on identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible.
Dr. Landis has received distinction as an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association, a Javits Neuroscience Investigator, and a MacKnight Senior Investigator, and as an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Landis has served on numerous scientific advisory committees including selection and review committees for the NIH and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 2002, she was named the President-Elect of the Society for Neuroscience.The NINDS supports research by investigators in public and private institutions across the country, as well as by scientists working in its intramural laboratories and branches in Bethesda, Maryland. The Institute's mission is to reduce the burden of neurological disease -- a burden borne by every age group, by every segment of society, by people all over the world.
The institute is organized into a division of extramural research and a division of intramural research.
Division of Extramural Research
The Division of Extramural Research plans and directs initiatives for grant and contract support for research, research training, and career development to assure maximum utilization of available resources in the attainment of NINDS objectives. Research activities include studies on: fundamental cellular, molecular, and systems neuroscience; developmental neurobiology; developmental disorders; neurogenetics; stroke; traumatic brain and spinal cord injury; neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease; brain tumors; development of artificial prosthetic devices to restore function to the damaged nervous system; convulsive disorders, including epilepsy; infectious disorders of the brain and nervous system, including AIDS; immune disorders of the brain and nervous system, including multiple sclerosis; disorders related to sleep mechanisms; and neuromuscular disorders.
In addition, the division maintains surveillance over developments in these program areas and assesses the national need for research on the cause, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the brain and nervous system. Program scientists also track technological development, the application of research findings, and research training and career development in these areas. In addition to determining program priorities and recommending funding levels for programs to be supported by grants and contracts, division scientists (a) collaborate with other institutes of the NIH on national research efforts related to these program areas, (b) prepare reports and analyses of national needs to assist NINDS staff and advisory groups in carrying out their responsibilities and in developing new areas of emphasis, and (c) consult with voluntary health organizations and with professional associations in identifying research needs and developing programs to meet these needs.
The Division of Extramural Research is organized into work groups known as clusters. The current operational clusters are:
Resources and information will move fluidly among the clusters, and new ones will be created and old ones abolished as science, technology, and resources dictate.
There are also three administrative branches in the extramural program devoted to support and coordination, a Scientific Review Branch, and an Office of Research Training and Career Development. Topics of special interest to each cluster are listed below. Many clinical and basic research problems are addressed collaboratively by members of several clusters.
Repair and Plasticity
Systems and Cognitive Neuroscience
Channels, Synapses, and Circuits
Other Special Organizational Components
In addition to Clusters, the NINDS Division of Extramural Research includes several cross-Cluster organizational components that reflect key planning priorities, such as experimental therapeutics, technology development, translational research, and minority health and research. Highlighted programs include:
NINDS Technology Development
NINDS Technology Development develops grant and contract-supported programs that use, develop, support, and disseminate research technologies with broad applicability to neuroscience, and to support the discovery, development, testing, and manufacturing of drugs for treatment of neurological diseases. These programs include initiatives and collaborative agreements that support scientific advancements in the following areas:
One key planning area is in the field of translational research, which directs knowledge gained through basic science to potential new treatments for disease. Several new programs reinforce the NINDS commitment to this area of research.
Office of Minority Health and Research
The Office of Minority Health and Research plans, coordinates and directs research and research training programs to attract, retain and develop future minority neuroscience health and research professionals. The office also develops and implements long-term strategies to reduce the disease disparity of populations that are historically at increased risk for diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.
Division of Intramural Research
A full description of the NINDS Division of Intramural Research can be found at http://intra.ninds.nih.gov.
Additional information on NIH neuroscience programs, including programs sponsored by the NINDS, is available at http://neuroscience.nih.gov.
|This page was last reviewed on June 21, 2005 .|
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