Dr. Kinyoun received his M.D. degree from New York University
in 1882 and did postgraduate work in Europe under the German bacteriologist,
Dr. Kinyoun joined the Marine Hospital Service in 1886. In a one-room
laboratory on Staten Island, N.Y., he applied new techniques he
had learned in Europe, enabling him to isolate the organism that
causes cholera. The Hygienic Laboratory was established in August
1887 and Dr. Kinyoun served as its director until April 30, 1899.
During his government career, Dr. Kinyoun designed the Kinyoun-Francis
sterilizer, a shipboard disinfecting apparatus. In 1903 he retired
from public service, and after working in private industry and as
a professor at the George Washington University, he became a bacteriologist
in the District of Columbia Health Department, a post which he held
until his death on February 14, 1919.
After receiving his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, he
did postgraduate work in Europe in the field of sanitation and public
In 1890 he received his commission in the Marine Hospital Service.
He became director of the Hygienic Laboratory on May 1, 1899.
A pioneer in the study of anaphylaxis, he also conducted research
on yellow fever, malaria, typhoid fever, poliomyelitis, disinfectants,
and the pasteurization of milk. His Preventive Medicine and Hygiene is
a standard text for students of public health.
On September 30, 1909, Dr. Rosenau resigned from government service
to join the staff of Harvard Medical School. In 1936 he went to
the University of North Carolina where he served as director of
the Public Health School until his death on April 9, 1946.
After receiving his M.D. degree at the University of Virginia,
he went abroad to study bacteriology. Upon returning in 1898, he
joined the Marine Hospital Service and on October 1, 1909, succeeded
Dr. Rosenau as director of the Hygienic Laboratory.
Throughout his career in the service, he was actively engaged in
research. He studied serum and vaccine therapy, immunology, cholera,
typhus, poliomyelitis, and public health and sanitation problems.
He worked with Dr. Rosenau on hypersusceptibility, anaphylaxis,
and tuberculosis, and with Dr. Joseph Goldberger on the transmission
of measles to monkeys, providing science with an experimental animal
for that disease.
Dr. Anderson served as director of the Hygienic Laboratory until
November 19, 1915, when he resigned to become director of the Research
and Biological Laboratories and later vice president of E. R. Squibb & Sons.
He died on September 29, 1958.
He entered the Marine Hospital Service in 1900 after graduating
from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School.
During his first assignment at the Marine hospital in San Francisco,
he became interested in leprosy. While heading the U.S. Plague Laboratory
in San Francisco from 1908 to 1911, he discovered that the California
ground squirrel was responsible for the spread of the organism causing
On November 20, 1915, he became fourth director of the Hygienic
Laboratory, renamed "National Institute of Health" in 1930. During
this period he conducted important studies in influenza, poliomyelitis,
smallpox, tularemia, amoebic dysentery, and pneumonia. Dr. McCoy
served as director until January 31, 1937.
After conducting a nationwide survey on leprosy, Dr. McCoy retired
from PHS on June 30, 1938, and joined the staff of Louisiana State
University in New Orleans. He died on April 2, 1952.
Hhe joined PHS in 1910, having graduated from Louisville Medical
College. After becoming chief of the Division of Scientific Research
in 1930, he administered field investigations of stream pollution,
malaria, cancer, nutritional diseases, child hygiene, milk, dental
problems, and industrial hygiene. When the division was merged with
NIH, Dr. Thompson became director on February 1, 1937.
Dr. Thompson was largely responsible for securing the present-day
site of NIH and for securing appropriations for the construction
of the first six buildings. He served as director until January
31, 1942, and after retiring from PHS in 1947 became a scientific
director of the international health division of the Rockefeller
Foundation. He died on November 12, 1954.
Dr. Dyer received his M.D. from the University of Texas and joined
PHS in 1916.
His first assignment involved fieldwork on bubonic plague in New
Orleans. Five years later he joined the staff of the Hygienic Laboratory,
became chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases in 1936, and
director of NIH in 1942.
As director, Dr. Dyer organized the Division of Research Grants,
assisted in planning the Clinical Center, and helped establish three
new institutes: the National Heart Institute, the National Institute
of Dental Research, and National Institute of Mental Health.
After retiring from active duty on September 30, 1950, Dr. Dyer
served as a member of the scientific board of directors of the international
health division of the Rockefeller Foundation. He died June 2, 1971.
Dr. Sebrell received his M.D. degree from the University of Virginia
and joined PHS in 1926.
He began his research career under Dr. Joseph Goldberger who demonstrated
that pellagra is a deficiency disease. During the 1930's, Dr. Sebrell
made many important contributions to our knowledge of the anemias
and the role of diet in cirrhosis of the liver.
During World War II, Dr. Sebrell was codirector of the National
Nutrition Program which coordinated activities of all state agencies
working in the field of nutrition. This program aided food production
and the maintenance of civilian health during the war years.
In 1948 he became director of the Experimental Biology and Medicine
Institute, and on October 1, 1950, was appointed director of NIH.
He held this post until his retirement on July 31, 1955.
Dr. Sebrell helped formulate the first international standards
of nutrition for the League of Nations, and pioneered in gaining
acceptance of scientific nutrition as a regular function of modern
state and local health departments.
He received his M.D. in 1929 and a Ph.D. in physiology in 1935
from New York University.
Following his internship at Bellevue Hospital in New York, Dr.
Shannon taught in the department of physiology at New York University
College of Medicine from 1931 to 1941, and directed research at
the university's Goldwater Memorial Hospital from 1940 to 1945.
During periods of leave, he served as guest investigator at the
physiological laboratory, University of Cambridge, England, and
as a member of the staff of the Marine Biological Laboratory at
Woods Hole, Mass.
During World War II, Dr. Shannon played a prominent part in malaria
research activities of the National Research Council and was consultant
on tropical diseases to the secretary of war. In recognition of
this work, he received the Presidential Medal for Merit, the highest
award at that time for civilian service in government.
Before joining PHS in 1949, he was director of the Squibb Institute
for Medical Research (1946-49), and special consultant to the PHS
Dr. Shannon then served as associate director in charge of research
in the National Heart Institute until 1952. After holding the post
of associate director, NIH, for 3 years, he became its director
on August 1, 1955.
Among his many honors were the Public Welfare Medal of the National
Academy of Sciences for "eminence in the application of science
to the public welfare" (1962), the Rockefeller Public Service Award
for Science, Technology, or Engineering (1964), and the Presidential
Distinguished Federal Civilian Service Award (1966).
On retiring as NIH director (August 31, 1968), Dr. Shannon joined
the NAS as special advisor to the president. In February 1970 he
became professor and special assistant to the president, Rockefeller
University. He retired from those positions in 1975, and now resides
in Portland, Oreg.
He received his B.S. degree in 1943 from the Virginia Military
Institute, and his M.D. from the Medical College of Virginia in
1947. As a Rhodes scholar, he worked for the next 2 years with Nobel
prizewinner Howard Florey at Oxford University, Oxford, England,
earning a B.Sc. from that institution in 1949.
After an internship at Johns Hopkins Hospital and a year's residency
at Vanderbilt University Hospital in Nashville, Tenn., he was stationed
at NIH from 1951 to 1953 as a member of the Armed Forces Special
Weapons Project, conducting research on the role of infection after
whole body irradiation. He completed his residency at the Medical
College of Virginia in Richmond the following year.
While a Markle fellow, he served as assistant professor of medicine
at the Medical College of Virginia from 1954 to 1957, and as assistant
professor of bacteriology and immunology at the University of Minnesota
in Minneapolis for 1 year. He returned to the Medical College of
Virginia in 1959 as associate professor of medicine and assistant
dean in charge of student affairs.
In 1961, Dr. Marston became director of the University of Mississippi
Medical Center and dean of the School of Medicine in Jackson, Miss.,
and was appointed vice chancellor there in 1965.
He became an associate director of NIH and director of the newly
created Division of Regional Medical Programs on February 1, 1966.
On April 1, 1968, Dr. Marston was named administrator of the Health
Services and Mental Health Administration, under a departmental
He became acting director of the National Institute of Neurological
Diseases and Stroke on January 21, 1973. He left the Federal service
in April 1973 to become a scholar-in-residence at the University
of Virginia. He also was named the first distinguished fellow of
the Institute of Medicine, NAS.
On January 11, 1974, Dr. Marston was named president of the University
of Florida at Gainesville.
He received his B.A. in 1942 from Brooklyn College and his M.D.
from the State University of New York College of Medicine in 1950.
Dr. Stone was an instructor in pathology at Columbia University
College of Physicians and Surgeons from 1950 to 1952.
Following his 1950-1952 internship and assistant residency in pathology
at New York's Presbyterian Hospital, Dr. Stone moved to Los Angeles
and joined the faculty of UCLA's School of Medicine, department
From 1957 to 1959 as part of his academic duties he was deputy
coroner at Los Angeles County, and for several years was pathologist
for the Los Angeles Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children.
While on sabbatical as a visiting scientist at the Rockefeller
Institute in 1959, he was credited with demonstrating by electron
microscopy that the Shope papilloma virus of rabbits could be found
in mature skin cells, but was undetectable, although presumed present,
in younger growing cells.
Based on his observation of autopsies of atomic bomb victims in
Hiroshima, Japan, Dr. Stone was one of the first researchers to
suggest that radiation exposure increases the incidence of certain
known diseases rather than creating new types. He served as chief
of research in pathology for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission
from 1959 to 1960.
He contributed to the concept of developing a method control population
to study the normal incidence of various diseases for comparison,
as was subsequently done.
It was as a result of this work and his continuing interest that
he was appointed to the NAS Advisory Committee on the Atomic Bomb
Dr. Stone joined the University of New Mexico School of Medicine
as chairman of the department of pathology in 1963, and became dean
of the school in 1968. Prior to his appointment as NIH director,
he took a year's leave from the university and was a visiting professor
at the Sloan School of Management, MIT.
He became dean of the School of Medicine of the University of Oregon
Health Sciences Center and vice president of the Health Sciences
Center in August 1975. He has since been appointed dean of the College
of Medicine at Texas A & M University in August of 1978.
His association with NIH, however, spans more than two decades
beginning in 1953 when he joined the scientific staff of the then
National Heart Institute (renamed the National Heart, Lung, and
Blood Institute in 1976) as a clinical associate.
During his research career in the Federal service, Dr. Fredrickson
held numerous positions at NIH, several in the heart institute simultaneously.
From 1955 to 1961 he was a member of the Laboratory of Cellular
Physiology and Metabolism. He then served as clinical director (1961-1966),
while continuing his research as head of the section of molecular
diseases, Laboratory of Metabolism (1962-1966). He was appointed
institute director in 1966, serving in that capacity until 1968.
He combined this executive responsibility with research as chief
of the Molecular Diseases Branch (1966-1974), and as director of
intramural research (1969-1974).
His earliest research interests centered on the metabolism of sterols.
Later he focused on the structure of the plasma lipoproteins, their
importance in the transport of fats, and the genetic factors regulating
their metabolism and concentration in blood. It was during this
period that he discovered two new genetic disorders: Tangier disease
(absence of high density lipoproteins) and cholesteryl ester storage
disease, a lysosomal enzyme deficiency.
In 1965 he and his coworkers introduced a system for identifying
and classifying blood-lipid abnormalities on the basis of plasma
lipoprotein patterns. From this work came recognition of new monogenic
causes of hyperlipidemia: type 3 and type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia
and what is called familial hypertriglyceridemia. The system received
prompt acceptance by the WHO and is now used widely by laboratories
around the world.
Research findings of Dr. Fredrickson and colleagues have also included
the discovery of several previously unknown apolipo-proteins, and
new knowledge including descriptions concerning the structure and
function of various apoproteins.
He received both his B.S. (1946) and M.D. (1949) from the University
of Michigan, and was certified by the American Board of Internal
Medicine in 1957. He did postgraduate work at Peter Bent Brigham
and Massachusetts General Hospitals and the Harvard Medical School
prior to coming to NIH in 1953.
Dr. Fredrickson is a member of numerous professional societies
in addition to the NAS and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
He resigned as NIH director on June 30, 1981, returning to the
NAS as a visiting scholar.
He has had a long association with the NIH. From 1953 to 1954,
he was a research associate in the Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology
of the then National Heart Institute, and from 1954 to 1956, he
was a clinical associate at the then National Institute of Arthritis
and Metabolic Diseases. After leaving in 1956 to become associate
professor at the Duke University School of Medicine, he continued
an association with NIH. He has held grants from several NIH components.
Dr. Wyngaarden has been active on various NIH study groups, evaluation
committees, and review panels over the years, including a term with
the board of scientific counselors of the then NIAMD (1971-1974).
He also served as a consultant to the NIH as a member of study sections
He has also served as advisor to the broader scientific community
as a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1974, and
was active from 1975 to 1982 on an NAS committee set up to study
the Nation's overall need for biomedical and behavioral researchers;
consultant for the President's Office of Science and Technology
(1966-1972), a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee
(1972-1973), and a member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's
Advisory Committee on Biology and Medicine.
Dr. Wyngaarden is the coauthor of Cecil Textbook of Medicine.
In collaboration with former NIH director, Dr. Fredrickson, and
others, he edited The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease.
The original work was published in 1960.
He attended Calvin College there, and Western Michigan University
in 1943-1944. In 1948 he graduated first in his class from the University
of Michigan Medical School.
Dr. Wyngaarden trained in internal medicine at the Massachusetts
General Hospital and did postdoctoral work at the Public Health
Research Institute of the City of New York, under the direction
of Dr. DeWitt Stetten, Jr., former NIGMS director. After serving
as research associate at NIH from 1953 to 1956, he went to Duke
and in 1959 became director of the medical research training program
there as well as associate professor of medicine and biochemistry.
In 1961 he became professor of medicine and associate professor
In 1963 and 1964, he was a visiting scientist at the Institut de
Biologie-Physiocochemique in Paris. Shortly after his return to
this country, he left Duke to become professor and chairman of the
department of medicine and professor of biochemistry at the University
of Pennsylvania. He returned to Duke in 1967.
Dr. Wyngaarden has received many honorary degrees: University of
Michigan (D.Sc., 1980), Medical College of Ohio (D.Sc., 1984), University
of Illinois at Chicago (D.Sc., 1985), George Washington University
(D.Sc., 1986), and Tel Aviv University (Ph.D., 1987).
He is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine. He
has served on editorial boards of numerous professional publications.
Dr. Wyngaarden is a member of a number of professional societies
including the NAS Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of
Arts and Sciences, the American Society for Clinical Investigation,
and is a past president of the Association of American Physicians.
He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London and
was elected to the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden in 1987.
Prior to her appointment, she was chairman of the Research Institute
of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, where she directed the research
programs of nine departments including efforts in cardiovascular
disease, neurobiology, immunology, cancer, artificial organs, and
molecular biology. From her appointment in November 1985, she also
served as a staff member of the clinic's department of cardiology.
In February 1984, Dr. Healy became deputy director of the Office
of Science and Technology Policy at the White House. Her appointment,
made by President Reagan and confirmed by the Senate in June of
1984, involved her heavily in life science and regulatory issues
at the Federal level. She served as chairman of the White House
Cabinet Working Group on Biotechnology, was executive secretary
of the White House Science Council's Panel on the Health of Universities,
and served as member of several advisory groups, including the councils
of the NHLBI, NCI, as well as the White House Working Group on Health
Policy and Economics. From June 1976 until February 1984, she was
professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
and Hospital, where she also had clinical responsibilities, directed
a program in cardiovascular research, and was director of the coronary
care unit. In addition to serving on the medical school faculty,
she assumed the role of assistant dean for postdoctoral programs
and faculty development.
Among her other professional affiliations, Dr. Healy has served
on the board of governors of the American College of Cardiology
and has been president of the American Federation of Clinical Research
(1983-84) and was chairman of its public policy committee for several
years. She was president of the American Heart Association in 1988-1989
and has served as a member of its board of directors since 1983.
As AHA president, she initiated a women's minority leadership task
force and a women and heart disease program that took hold in affiliates
She is a member of the Institute of Medicine of NAS. In 1989 she
was elected as a member of the board of overseers of Harvard College
and has served on the board of trustees of Vassar College. She has
also been chairman of the Ohio Council on Research and Economic
Development, and served on several other advisory committees and
boards, including the Ohio Board of Regents.
Dr. Healy has been active in several Federal advisory groups. Until
her NIH appointment, she was a member of the advisory committee
to the NIH director. She has been a member of the White House Science
Council and chairman of the advisory panel for new developments
in biotechnology of the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S.
Congress and a member of the NASA Life Sciences Strategic Planning
Study Committee. In 1990 she was appointed to the President's Council
of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST) and served as its
vice-chairman. She also chaired the advisory panel for basic research
for the 1990's of the Office of Technology Assessment, and served
on the special medical advisory committee of the Department of Veterans
She graduated from Hunter College High School. She received her
bachelor's degree from Vassar College in 1965, and her M.D., cum
laude, from Harvard Medical School in June 1970. She completed training
in internal medicine and cardiology at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Dr. Healy has written extensively in the areas of cardiovascular
research and medicine, and has served on the editorial boards of
numerous scientific journals.
She stepped down as director of NIH on June 30, 1993, to return
the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio.
Prior to his appointment, he was professor of microbiology, biochemistry,
and biophysics, and the American Cancer Society professor of molecular
virology at UCSF. He has been working at the cutting edge of modern
cell and molecular biology, and has had an active relationship with
NIH for about 30 years as an intramural scientist, grantee, and
Dr. Varmus and his UCSF colleague Dr. J. Michael Bishop shared
the 1989 Nobel in Physiology or Medicine for demonstrating that
cancer genes (oncogenes) can arise from normal cellular genes, called
proto-oncogenes. While investigating a retroviral gene, v-src, responsible
for causing tumors in chickens, they discovered a nonviral src gene,
very similar to v-src, present in the normal cells of birds and
In recent years his work has assumed special relevance to AIDS,
through a focus on biochemical properties of HIV, and to breast
cancer, through investigation of mammary tumors in mice. His research
activities included grants from NCI, NIAID, NIGMS, American Cancer
Society, and the Melanie Bronfman Award for Breast Cancer.
Dr. Varmus has served as chairman of the board of biology for the
National Research Council, an advisor to the Congressional Caucus
for Biomedical Research, a member of the joint steering committee
for Public Policy of Biomedical Societies, and cochairman of the
New Delegation for Biomedical Research, a coalition of leaders in
the biomedical community. He directed "Winding Your Way Through
DNA," a popular public symposium on recombinant DNA staged by UCSF.
Author or editor of 4 books and nearly 300 scientific papers, he
has been elected to the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy
of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His
most recent book, Genes and the Biology of Cancer, intended
for a general audience, was coauthored with Robert Weinberg for
the Scientific American Library. He as edited several professional
journals, and served on a variety of review and advisory boards
for government, biotechnology firms, and pharmaceutical companies.
Dr. Varmus was a member of the IOM committee that advised the Department
of Defense on the use of $210 million allocated by Congress in 1992
for breast cancer research. In 1986 he chaired the subcommittee
of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses that gave
the AIDS virus its name HIV.
He attended public schools in Freeport, Long Island; his father
practiced family medicine and his mother was a psychiatric social
worker. He is a graduate of Amherst College (B.A., 1961), where
he majored in English literature and edited the school newspaper;
Harvard University (M.A., 1962); and Columbia University (M.D.,
1966). While in medical school, he worked for 3 months at a mission
hospital in northern India.
After an internship and residency in internal medicine at Columbia-Presbyterian
Hospital in New York, he served as a clinical associate for 2 years
(1968-70) at the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases,
where he did his first scientific work in the area of bacterial
genetics with Dr. Ira Pastan, who is now chief of NCI's Laboratory
of Molecular Biology. He came to UCSF as a postdoctoral fellow in
Bishop's laboratory in 1970, initiating a long-standing collaboration
to study tumor viruses, and was appointed to the faculty later that
He became a full professor in 1979 and an ACS research professor