Institutes and Research Divisions
National Institute of General Medicine


NIGMS primarily supports basic biomedical research that is not targeted to specific diseases or disorders. Because scientific breakthroughs often originate from such untargeted studies, NIGMS-funded work has contributed substantially to the tremendous progress that biomedical research has made in recent years. The institute's training programs help provide the most critical element of good research: well-prepared scientists.

Each year, NIGMS-supported scientists make major advances in understanding fundamental life processes. In the course of answering basic research questions, these investigators also increase our knowledge about the mechanisms involved in certain diseases. Other grantees develop important new tools and techniques, many of which have applications in the biotechnology industry. In recognition of the significance of their work, a number of NIGMS grantees have received the Nobel Prize and other high scientific honors.

Three divisions: Cell Biology and Biophysics; Genetics and Developmental Biology; and Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry support research and research training in basic biomedical science fields. The institute also has a Division of Minority Opportunities in Research, which administers a number of programs that are designed to increase the number of minority biomedical scientists. Finally, NIGMS has a Division of Extramural Activities, which handles the grant-related functions of the Institute.

NIGMS was established in 1962. In fiscal year 1995, its budget was $905 million. The vast majority of this money funds grants to scientists at universities, medical schools, hospitals, and research institutions throughout the country. At any given time, NIGMS supports over 3,300 research grants--about 14 percent of the grants funded by NIH as a whole. NIGMS also supports nearly half of the predoctoral trainees and about 30 percent of all the trainees who receive assistance from NIH.

The institute places great emphasis on the support of individual, investigator-initiated research grants. It funds a limited number of research center grants in selected fields, such as trauma and burn research and the pharmacological sciences (including anesthesiology), in which the interaction of basic and clinical researchers is critical for rapid scientific progress. In addition, NIGMS funds several research contracts that provide important resources for basic scientists.

NIGMS research training programs recognize the interdisciplinary nature of biomedical research today, and stress approaches to biological problems that cut across disciplinary and departmental lines. Such experience prepares trainees to pursue creative research careers in a wide variety of areas. Among the fields in which NIGMS has long offered institutional predoctoral training programs are the cellular, biochemical, and molecular sciences genetics the pharmacological sciences and systems and integrative biology. Another longstanding training activity, the Medical Scientist Training Program, provides investigators who can bridge the gap between basic and clinical research by supporting research training leading to the combined M.D.-Ph.D. degree. Several newer training programs were designed to capitalize on rapidly developing areas of science, including biotechnology, molecular biophysics, and the interface between the fields of chemistry and biology.

The institute supports postdoctoral research through individual fellowships in areas related to its scientific programs and institutional postdoctoral training in the fields of anesthesiology, clinical pharmacology, genetics (with an emphasis on medical genetics), and trauma and burn injury research.

NIGMS also has a Pharmacology Research Associate Program, in which postdoctoral scientists pursue research in NIH or Food and Drug Administration laboratories. It is intended for individuals with backgrounds in the basic or clinical sciences who wish to obtain advanced experience in an area of pharmacology, or for those who are already pharmacologists to gain experience in new fields.


Important Events in NIGMS History July 16, 1958--The secretary, DHEW, approved establishment of the Division of General Medical Sciences.

October 17, 1962--Congress authorized establishment of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

January 30, 1963--The DHEW secretary, approved establishment of NIGMS.

October 8, 1963--The National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council held its first meeting.

October 13, 1982--NIGMS celebrated its 20th anniversary by establishing the DeWitt Stetten, Jr., Lecture. Dr. David S. Hogness, Stanford University, gave the first lecture.

October 1, 1989--Administration of the Minority Biomedical Research Support Program was transferred to NIGMS from the NIH Division of Research Resources.


NIGMS Legislative Chronology October 17, 1962--Public Law 87-838 authorized the Surgeon General to establish an institute to conduct and support research and research training in the general or basic medical sciences and in related natural or behavioral sciences that have significance for two or more other institutes of NIH, or that lie outside the general areas of responsibility of any other institute.

Director's of NIGMS

NameDate of Birth Dates of Office
G. Halsey Hunt.........................July 16, 1958April 1962
Clinton C. Powell.........................July 1962July 1964
Frederick L. StoneMarch 31, 1915 Aug. 1, 1964 June 1965
DeWitt Stetten, Jr.May 31, 1909Oct. 1, 1970August 1974
Ruth L. KirschsteinOctober 12, 1926Sept. 1, 1974Nov. 23, 1993
Marvin Cassman (Actg)April 4, 1936 July 1, 1993.........................

Biographical Sketch of NIGMS Director Marvin Cassman, Ph.D. (Acting)

Dr. Cassman was named acting NIGMS director on July 1, 1993.

He has served as NIGMS deputy director since 1989. His other positions within the institute include director, Biophysics and Physiological Sciences Program Branch (1985-1989) and chief, molecular basis of disease section of the Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease Program Branch (1978-1984). He has also worked in the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, as a senior policy analyst.

After receiving his undergraduate degree from the University of Chicago, Dr. Cassman earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1965 at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Following a postdoctoral fellowship in the laboratory of Dr. Howard Schachman at the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the faculty of the University of California, Santa Barbara. He came to NIGMS in 1975 as a health scientist administrator in the Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease Program Branch.

He has received many honors and awards for his work at NIGMS, including the 1991 Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award and the 1983 NIH Director's Award.


Major NIGMS Programs

Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics

The Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics seeks greater understanding of the structure and function of cells, cellular components, and the biological macromolecules that make up these components. The long-range goal of the division is to find ways to prevent, treat, and cure diseases that result from disturbed or abnormal cellular activity.

The division has two components: the Biophysics Branch and the Cell Biology Branch.

Biophysics Branch

This branch supports studies in the areas of biophysics and bioengineering, disciplines that use techniques derived from the physical sciences to examine the structures and properties of biological substances. Areas of emphasis in biophysical research include the determination of the structures of proteins and nucleic acids studies of the structural features that determine macromolecular conformation the structural analysis of macromolecular interactions and of ligand-macromolecular interactions the development of physical methodology for the analysis of molecular structure and the development and use of theoretical methods to investigate biological systems. Bioengineering research interests include the development and refinement of instruments needed to conduct research in the areas described above. These include nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and other forms of spectroscopy x-ray and other scattering techniques microscopy and cell separation techniques. This area of research also includes the development of new bioanalytical methods and biomaterials.

Cell Biology Branch

This branch supports general studies on the molecular and biochemical activities of cells and subcellular components, as well as on the role of cellular dysfunction in disease. Emphasis is placed on research with applications to more than one cell type, model system, or disease state, as well as research that does not fall within the disease-oriented mission of another NIH component. Representative studies include those on plasma and intracellular membranes, receptors, and signal transduction mechanisms the structure and function of the cyto-skeleton cell motility the regulation of protein and membrane synthesis and the activation of cell growth subcellular organ-elles cell division and lipid biochemistry.

Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology

The Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology supports studies directed toward gaining a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inheritance and development. These studies underlie the more targeted research projects supported by other NIH components. Most of the projects supported by the division make use of nonhuman model systems. It is expected that the results of these studies will lead to the eventual diagnosis, prevention, therapy, and cure of human genetic and developmental disorders.

Among the areas under active investigation are the replication, repair, and recombination of DNA the regulation of gene expression RNA processing protein synthesis extrachromosomal inheritance population genetics and evolution developmental genetics cell growth and differentiation cell cycle control rearrangement of genetic elements neuro-genetics and the genetics of behavior and chromosome organization and mechanics.

Along with its research and research training activities, the Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology supports the Human Genetic Mutant Cell Repository, a unique resource for scientists studying medical and human genetics. The repository establishes and stores well-characterized cultured cell lines representing metabolic and chromosomal disorders collected from patients and their families. These cells and DNA extracted from them, as well as somatic cell hybrids, are provided to qualified investigators at modest charge, thus permitting the researchers to study the molecular and cellular aspects of many rare genetic conditions using material that would otherwise be difficult to obtain.

Division of Minority Opportunities in Research

The Division of Minority Opportunities in Research administers research and research training programs aimed at increasing the number of minority biomedical scientists. Support is available at the high school, undergraduate, graduate, postdoctoral, and faculty levels.

The division has three components: the Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) Branch; Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) Branch; and Special Initiatives.

MARC Branch

The MARC branch supports research training at 4-year colleges, universities, and health professional schools with substantial enrollments of such minorities as African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders.

The branch's goals are to increase the number and capabilities of minorities engaged in biomedical research and to strengthen science curricula and student research opportunities at minority institutions. MARC funds research training for honors undergraduates, predoctoral fellowships, faculty fellowships, and visiting scientist fellowships.

MBRS Branch

To increase the number of researchers who are members of minority groups that are underrepresented in the biomedical sciences, the MBRS branch awards grants to 2- or 4-year colleges, universities, and health professional schools with substantial enrollments of minorities.

These grants support research by faculty members, strengthen the institutions' biomedical research capabilities, and provide opportunities for students to work as part of a research team.


NIGMS Appropriations -- Grants and Direct Operations
[Amounts in thousands of dollars]

Total Grants
Direct Operations
1982 327,39212,470339,862
*Includes R&D contracts.

Special Initiatives

The division develops and launches new research and research training programs and other initiatives for minority scientists. These include the Bridges to the Future Program (Bridges to the Baccalaureate Degree and Bridges to the Doctoral Degree), which is cosponsored by the NIH Office of Research on Minority Health.

The division is also responsible for organizing meetings and other activities that build networks among individuals and educational institutions to promote minority participation in sponsored research.

Division of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry

The Division of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry supports a broad spectrum of research and research training aimed at improving the molecular-level understanding of fundamental biological processes and discovering approaches to their control. Research supported by the division takes a multifaceted approach to problems in pharmacology, physiology, biochemistry, and biorelated chemistry that are either very basic in nature or that have implications for more than one disease area.

The goals of supported research include an improved understanding of drug action and mechanisms of anesthesia new methods and targets for drug discovery advances in natural products synthesis an enhanced understanding of biological catalysis a greater knowledge of metabolic regulation and fundamental physiological processes and the integration and application of basic physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical research to clinical issues in pharmacology, anesthesia, and trauma and burn injury.

Biochemistry and Biorelated Chemistry Branch

This branch supports basic research in areas of biochemistry, such as enzyme catalysis and regulation, bioenergetics and redox biochemistry, and glycoconjugates. It also supports research in areas of biorelated chemistry, such as organic synthesis and methodology, as well as bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry.

Examples of biochemical investigations include studies of the chemical basis of the regulation and catalytic properties of enzymes, intermediary metabolism, the chemical and physical properties of the cellular systems for electron transport and energy transduction, and the biosynthesis and structure of carbohydrate-containing macromolecules.

Chemical investigation examples include the development of strategies for natural products synthesis, studies of the structure and function of small molecules, the chemistry of metal ions in biological systems, the development of novel medicinal agents or mimics of macromolecular function, and the creation of new synthetic methodologies.

The branch also supports studies in biotechnology. This work focuses on the development of biological catalysts, including living organisms, for the production of useful chemical compounds, medicinal or diagnostic agents, or probes of biological phenomena.

Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences Branch

This branch supports research in pharmacology, anesthesiology, and the physiological sciences. Studies range from the molecular to the organismal level, and can be clinical in nature. In the pharmacological sciences and anesthesiology, important areas being studied are the effects of drugs on the body and the body's effects on drugs. This includes investigations of the absorption, transport, distribution, metabolism, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs, as well as drug delivery strategies and determinants of bioavailability.

Understanding the mechanisms of drug interactions with receptors and signal transduction mechanisms is another major focus of this section. This includes studies of soluble and membrane-bound receptors and channels, secondary and tertiary messenger systems, mediator molecules, and their regulation and pharmacological manipulation. Examples of studies in the physiological sciences include basic and clinical investigations directed toward improving understanding of the total body response to injury, including biochemical and physiological changes induced by trauma.

Research supported in this section includes studies on the etiology of post-traumatic sepsis and the mechanisms of immunosuppression, wound healing, and hypermetabolism following injury. This section also supports research in basic molecular immunobiology, which focuses on using cells of the immune system to study fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Division of Extramural Activities

The Division of Extramural Activities is responsible for the grant-related activities of the institute, including the receipt, referral, and advisory council review of applications as well as grant funding and management. It maintains an overview of the institute's scientific and financial status and advises the NIGMS director and other key staff on policy matters and on the planning, development, and scientific administration of institute research and training programs. The division recommends budget allocations for the various NIGMS programs. It also acts as a liaison with other NIH components for activities relating to grant application assignments and foreign grants.