Biographical Sketches of the
NIH Deputy Directors

Cassius James Van Slyke, M.D.

Dr. Van Slyke, first deputy director of NIH, served in that position from December 3, 1958, until his retirement on December 1, 1959. He received his M.D. in 1928 from the University of Minnesota and entered the PHS reserve corps that same year.

In 1932 he was commissioned in the regular corps and from 1936 to 1944 pursued a distinguished research career at the PHS Venereal Disease Research Laboratory in Staten Island, N.Y. In 1944, he was made assistant chief, Venereal Disease Division, Washington, D.C.

Dr. Van Slyke joined NIH in 1946 as chief of the newly established Research Grants Office, later renamed the Division of Research Grants, serving there until named director of NHI on August 1, 1948. He left NHI on November 30, 1952, to serve as associate director of NIH, a post he held until named NIH deputy director.

David E. Price, M.D.

A native of California, he earned his medical degree at the University of California School of Medicine at Berkeley in 1940, and served his internship at the PHS Hospital in San

Francisco. In 1946, he received his doctorate in public health at Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health.

Following a tour of duty in the Venereal Disease Division, PHS, he was assigned first to the DRG as assistant to the chief (1946-47) and then to the NCI as chief of the Research Grants Branch (1947-48). He returned to DRG in 1948 as chief, a post he held until he was named NIH associate director for extramural affairs (1950-52).

After a series of key appointments in the Office of the Surgeon General, the Bureau of Medical Services and the Bureau of State Services, Dr. Price was named deputy director of NIH on July 1, 1960. Two years later, he was appointed deputy surgeon general, PHS.

He retired from the service in 1965. Since his retirement, he has been associated with the Ford Foundation and the American Public Health Association.

Dr. Price was director of planning of the medical institutions, the Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Md. He retired on July 1, 1980, from Johns Hopkins.

Stuart M. Sessoms, M.D.

Dr. Sessoms came to NIH in 1953 as a member of the NCI staff. From 1955 to 1957 he was assistant director of the Clinical Center. He was appointed assistant director, NCI, on January 1, 1958, prior to his appointment in November 1958 as chief of NCI's Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center.

During this period, Dr. Sessoms served also as NCI associate director (1960), and associate director for collaborative research (1961) with responsibility for the institute's Virology Research Resources Branch, in addition to his duties at the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center.

He became the third NIH deputy director on August 1, 1962, serving in that capacity until his retirement July 31, 1968. On retirement, he held the rank of assistant surgeon general (rear admiral) in the PHS.

During his career at NIH, Dr. Sessoms was the recipient of two Meritorious Service Awards for his accomplishments as head of the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center, and for "outstanding ability and achievements in the development, operation and staffing" of the Regional Medical Programs.

A native of North Carolina, he received his B.S. in pharmacy at the University of North Carolina in 1943 and his M.D. from the Medical College of Virginia in 1946.

On retiring after 25 years of government service, Dr. Sessoms joined Duke University.

On Jan. 1, 1976, he was named president of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.

G. Burroughs Mider, M.D.

Dr. Mider, whose career at NIH reaches back to 1939, is well-known on the campus. Just prior to transferring to the National Library of Medicine, an NIH component, in 1968, Dr. Mider had served for 8 years as NIH director of laboratories and clinics (1960-68), in which he functioned as deputy director as well.

He first came to NIH as a research fellow, NCI, in 1939. On completing the fellowship, he became an instructor in pathology and assistant professor of pathology (1941-44) at Cornell Medical College. Concurrently, he was an assistant pathologist at New York Hospital.

Then came assignments as associate professor of pathology, University of Virginia School of Medicine (1944-45) and research associate in surgery and professor of cancer research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (1945-52).

On returning to NIH in 1952, he became NCI associate director in charge of research. In 1960 he was appointed NIH director of laboratories and clinics. In May 1968, Dr. Mider transferred to the NLM as special assistant to the director for medical program development and evaluation. The following year he was named acting deputy director, and in 1970 became NLM deputy director.

In 1960, he was the recipient of a DHEW Distinguished Service Award. Dr. Mider retired from the Library on June 30, 1972, to accept the position of executive officer for the Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology, Inc., and the American Society of Experimental Pathology.

John F. Sherman, Ph.D.

Dr. Sherman was appointed deputy director of NIH on November 1, 1968, after a long career in research and research grants administration. He was designated by HEW Secretary Richardson as acting director of NIH on January 21, 1973, and served until a new director was appointed May 29, 1973. He then returned to the position of deputy director.

He came to NIH in January 1953 as a research pharmacologist in the Laboratory of Tropical Diseases, National Microbiological Institute which became the NIAID in 1955.

In July 1956, Dr. Sherman joined the staff of the NIAMD as assistant to the chief of extramural programs. He became assistant chief of the institute's extramural programs in August 1957, and deputy chief in October 1958.

On July 1, 1961, he was appointed associate director for extramural programs, NINDB. He rejoined the NIAMD in 1962 as associate director for extramural programs, serving in that capacity until January 1, 1964, when he was named NIH associate director for extramural programs.

He received his B.S. in 1949 from the Union University College of Pharmacy in Albany, N.Y., and his Ph. D. in pharmacology in 1953 from Yale University.

He is the author of numerous scientific papers and articles in his field of research. In 1971, he received a DHEW Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Sherman left NIH in 1974 to become vice president of the Association of American Medical Colleges and director of the association's department of planning and policy development.

Robert W. Berliner, M.D.

Dr. Berliner, the first NIH deputy director for science, is an internationally renowned renal physiologist whose research in the field has contributed to understanding of the control of the excretion of sodium and potassium salts.

For 12 years (1950-62), he was chief of the Laboratory of Kidney and Electrolyte Metabolism, NHI, and from 1954 to 1968 served as the institute's director of intramural research.

In 1968, he was appointed director of laboratories and clinics, NIH. He was named to the newly created post of deputy director for science in 1969.

Prior to joining NIH in 1950, Dr. Berliner was assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University, and research associate with the New York City department of hospitals.

Born in New York City, he received his B.S. from Yale University and his M.D. from Columbia University in 1939. He served his internship and residency at the Presbyterian Hospital and Goldwater Memorial Hospital, respectively, both in New York.

He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1968. Other honors include the PHS Distinguished Service Award (1962), the Homer W. Smith Award (1965), the Modern Medicine Award for Distinguished Achievement (1969), and the American Heart Association's Research Achievement Award (1970).

Dr. Berliner left NIH to accept appointment as dean of the Yale University Medical School in September 1973.

DeWitt Stetten, Jr., M.D., Ph.D.

Dr. Stetten, an eminent medical educator and researcher in metabolic diseases, was named NIH deputy director for science on March 17, 1974.

He was in New York City, he received his A.B. degree from Harvard College in 1930, and his M.D. and Ph. D. from Columbia University in 1934 and 1940, respectively. From 1934 to 1937, he took his internship and residency at Bellevue Hospital in New York. Dr. Stetten then joined the staff at Columbia University for 9 years, serving successively as assistant instructor and assistant professor of biochemistry. In 1947, he was appointed assistant professor in biological chemistry at the Harvard Medical School. From 1948 to 1954, he was chief of the division of nutrition and physiology for the Public Health Research Institute of New York City.

Dr. Stetten first came to NIH in 1954 as director of the intramural research program of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. In that capacity, he directed institute programs on basic and clinical research in diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, and disorders of the blood, bone, and liver. He left NIH in 1962 to become the first dean of the Rutgers Medical School, a position he held until his return to NIH on October 1, 1970, as director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

The American Diabetes Association awarded Dr. Stetten the Banting Medal in 1957. In 1963, he delivered the 22nd annual NIH Lecture on the "History and Natural History of Gout."

Among his many honors were the DHEW Superior Service Honor Award (1973) DHEW Distinguished Service Award (1977).

He also received honorary D.Sc. degrees from Washington University (1974), and from the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (1976).

Author of more than 100 original papers in his field of research, and coauthor of the early editions of the textbook, Principles of Biochemistry. Dr. Stetten served on the editorial boards of numerous scientific and medical journals. He was president of the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (1972-74), and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the NAS Council. He was president of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1977-79.

Dr. Stetten was named senior scientific advisor to the NIH director in September 1979. He died on August 28, 1990.

Ronald W. Lamont-Havers, M.D.

Dr. Lamont-Havers, internationally known rheumatologist, was appointed deputy director of NIH on August 4, 1974, after serving in an acting capacity since May 20.

Prior to this appointment, he had been deputy director of the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (1972-74), and NIH associate director for extramural research and training for 4 years (1968-72).

He received his B.A. in 1942 from the University of British Columbia, Canada, and M.D. in 1946 from the University of Toronto. He took staff and residency training (1946-48) at the Vancouver General Hospital, and residency in internal medicine (1949-51) at the Queen Mary Veterans Hospital in Montreal. From 1951 to 1953, he was a fellow of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. He also received a diploma in internal medicine in 1953 from McGill University.

He came to NIH in 1964 as associate director for extramural programs, NIAMD. From 1955 to 1964 he was national medical director of the Arthritis Foundation and an instructor in medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. Prev-iously, he served as medical director of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society, British Columbia division, Vancouver, from 1953 to 1955, and as associate medical director, Student Health Service, University of British Columbia (1948-49).

Dr. Lamont-Havers, author or coauthor of numerous papers on arthritis and rheumatism, was honored in June 1973 with a DHEW Superior Service Award.

He left NIH in September 1976 to become deputy for research policy and administration to the general director, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Thomas E. Malone, Ph. D.

Dr. Malone, whose career at the NIH began in 1962, was named the sixth deputy director of NIH in March 1977.

He earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees from North Carolina Central University in 1948 and 1949 respectively, and his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1952. During the period 1950-52 he held a teaching fellowship at Harvard University.

Dr. Malone was professor of zoology at N.C. Central University in Durham from 1952 to 1958. He left that position to accept a postdoctoral fellowship of the NAS National Research Council, serving as a resident research associate at Argonne National Laboratory from 1958 to 1959. He subsequently served on the faculty at Loyola University in Chicago until joining the NIH staff in 1962.

He came to NIH as a member of the Grants Associates Program. After completing a year's training, he joined the staff of the National Institute of Dental Research in 1963, serving in several capacities--from 1963 to 1964 he was assistant chief of the research grants section; 1964 to 1966, deputy chief, extramural programs; and 1966 to 1967, chief, periodontal diseases and soft tissue studies, extramural programs.

In 1967 Dr. Malone accepted a position as professor and chairman of the department of biology at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. He returned to NIDR in 1969, where he was associate director for extramural programs until 1972 when he was appointed NIH associate director for extramural research and training, a position which he held until his appointment as deputy director of NIH.

He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and of numerous other professional organizations in health research and administration.

In June 1971 Dr. Malone received the DHEW Superior Service Award and was honored in April 1974 with the DHEW Distinguished Service Award . In October 1975 the American College of Dentists presented him with a Certificate of Merit. He received a Senior Executive Service Presidential Merit Award in 1980 and a Senior Executive Service Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award in 1983.

He served as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the 31st through 35th World Health Assemblies and has participated in numerous other international health activities.

Upon the resignation of Dr. Fredrickson, Dr. Malone was named acting NIH director until the appointment of Dr. Wyngaarden.

Robert Goldberger, M.D.

A highly regarded scientist in the biomedical research community, Dr. Goldberger became NIH deputy director for science in September 1979.

After receiving his A.B. degree from Harvard College in 1954, he attended the New York University Medical School, where he obtained an M.D. in 1958. He interned at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, and then spent 2 years as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Enzyme Research. He came to the NIH as a research associate in the National Heart Institute in 1961, working with Dr. C. B. Anfinsen on the mechanism by which newly synthesized polypeptide chains attain three-dimensional structures characteristic of native proteins. In 1963 he was a visiting scientist at the Weizmann Institute of Science.

Dr. Goldberger served as a biochemist in the Laboratory of Chemical Biology, NIAMD, from 1963 to 1966, when he became chief of that laboratory's Biosynthesis and Control Section. He worked on regulation of gene expression in bacteria.

In 1973 he moved to the NCI's Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis, where, as chief of the cellular regulation section, he worked on hormonal regulation of gene expression in avian liver.

Dr. Goldberger has written one book on biochemistry and has edited a multivolume treatise on biological regulation. From 1970 to 1971 he served as president of NIH's Inter-Assembly Council of the Assemblies of Scientists. He received the Superior Service Award, DHEW, in 1973 and the Meritorious Service Medal, USPHS, in 1977.

At the end of June 1981, he left NIH to accept a dual position as provost of Columbia University and vice president for health sciences, and as a professor of chemistry.

William F. Raub, Ph.D.

Dr. Raub was appointed deputy director in August 1986. Since June 1983, he had served as deputy director for extramural research and training coordinating the development and implementation of policies affecting extramural programs.

Upon the resignation of Dr. James B. Wyngaarden, July 31, 1989, Dr. Raub was named acting NIH director.

He was NIH associate director for extramural research and training previous to this appointment. He has served as associate director, National Eye Institute (1975-78), and chief, Biotechnology Resources Branch, Division of Research Resources (1969-75). He joined NIH in 1966.

Dr. Raub led the effort to develop the PROPHET system, a national computer resource for pharmacologists and others who study chemical/biological interactions. PROPHET is the most nearly comprehensive set of information-handling tools for this area of science ever to be presented in a unified system, and offered as a service to the biomedical community.

A graduate of Wilkes College in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., in 1961, he received his Ph.D. in 1965 from the University of Pennsylvania.

Joseph E. Rall, M.D., Ph.D.

Dr. Rall was appointed deputy director for intramural research in June 1983. He advises the NIH director on general scientific matters and intramural research policies and coordinates the intramural research program.

With NIH since 1955, he was director of the division of intramural research at the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases for more than 20 years.

Dr. Rall received his M.D. from Northwestern University School of Medicine (1945) and Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota (1952). He has received honorary degrees from North Central College, Naperville, Ill. (1966), the Free University of Brussels (1975), and the University of Naples (1985). He was elected to the NAS in 1980 and to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1985. In 1988 he was invited to become a member of the scientific advisory committee for the International Human Frontier Science Program.

He is a member of many organizations and the coauthor of more than 160 scientific articles. His research involves the areas of thyroid hormones, iodine metabolism, and thyroid diseases.

In addition to the Van Meter Prize (1950) and the Robert Williams Distinguished Leadership Award of the Endocrine Society (1983), Dr. Rall has received the Arthur S. Flemming Award (1959), the DHHS Superior Service Award (1965) and Distinguished Service Award (1968).

Katherine L. Bick, Ph.D.

Dr. Bick was named NIH deputy director for extramural research in April 1987. As a principal advisor to the NIH director, she coordinates the development and implementation of policies affecting NIH extramural programs.

She joined NIH in 1976 as a scientist administrator in the Neurological Disorders Program, NINCDS. In September 1983 she was appointed NINCDS deputy director, after serving in an acting capacity since February 1981. While in this position she received a PHS Special Achievement Award for sustained superior work performance.

A native of Canada, Dr. Bick received her undergraduate degree from Acadia University, Nova Scotia, and earned her Ph.D. from Brown University. She has held academic positions at Georgetown University and California State University, Northridge, and research positions at the UCLA School of Medicine and the University of Western Ontario.

Among her many honors are the PHS Superior Service Award (1986), Senior Executive Service Bonus Award for Performance (1984-88), and the NIH Director's Award (1977). In 1989 she received a Presidential Senior Rank Award.

Dr. Bick left NIH in April 1990.

John W. Diggs, Ph.D.

Dr. Diggs was appointed NIH deputy director for extramural research on July 29, 1990. He had been director of the NIAID Division of Extramural Activities since 1982.

A biology major at Lane College in Jackson, Tenn., he earned his M.S. (1969) and Ph.D. (1972) in physiology from Howard University. His postdoctoral work included serving as a senior research physiologist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

Dr. Diggs joined NINDS in 1974 as a health scientist administrator and received the institute's Special Achievement Award in 1979. He received the NIH Director's Award in 1985, the Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award in 1987, and the PHS Superior Service Award in 1990.

Included in his other honors are the Super Achiever in Science Award of Lane College National Alumni (1989), Merit Award of the District of Columbia General Hospital (1989), Outstanding Service Award of Montgomery Count Department of Health (1989), Outstanding Service Award of Maryland Congress of Parents and Teachers, Inc. (1989), the Distinguished Senior Professional Award from the International Professional Management Association (1986), and Howard's Distinguished Alumni Award (1979).

Lance A. Liotta, Ph.D., M.D.

Dr. Liotta was named NIH deputy director for intramural research effective July 6. He joins the Office of the Director after simultaneously serving since 1982 in three NCI Laboratory of Pathology positions: chief, tumor invasion and metastases section; lab chief; and codirector, Anatomic Pathology Residency Program.

He earned his A.B. degree in general science and biology from Hiram College in Ohio, followed by his Ph.D. in biomedical engineering and biomathematics from Case Western Reserve University. In 1976 he earned his M.D. from Case Western and joined NIH as a PHS resident physician in the NCI Laboratory of Pathology.

Dr. Liotta has devoted his career to the study of cancer invasion and metastasis, the major cause of cancer treatment failure. He was one of the first scientists to investigate this process at the molecular level. In 1975 he proposed that tumor cell attachment and degradation of the basement membrane (a collagenous sheath that surrounds epithelial ducts, blood vessels and nerves, and separates tissue compartments) was crucial to invasion and metastasis.

He found that disruption of the basement membrane is the general hallmark of the transition from in situ to invasive cancer for all human epithelial cancers. He discovered metallo-proteinases produced by tumor cells that degrade the metastasis; TIMP-2 (Dr. William Stetler-Stevenson), a new protein that inhibits invasion and angiogenesis; laminin-binding proteins (Dr. Mark Sobel) that mediate tumor cell attachment; and autotaxin (Dr. Mary Stracke), a protein that profoundly stimulates motility.

Dr. Liotta's group also developed the first synthetic compound (CAI) (Dr. Elise Kohn) that blocks cancer metastasis growth by inhibiting selected signal transduction pathways. CAI has now entered clinical phase I trials under support from the Division of Cancer Treatment.

He is a member of the International Metastasis Research Society, American Association for Cancer Research, American Association of Pathologists, American Society of Cell Biology, American Society for Clinical Investigation, and the International Academy of Pathology.

Dr. Liotta has received numerous awards including three PHS Commissioned Corps Medals, the Arthur S. Flemming Award, the Warner Lambert/Parke Davis Award, the Josef Steiner Prize, and the Lil Gruber Research Award. He holds more than 30 patents for his work.

Ruth Kirschstein, M.D.

Dr. Kirschstein, director of NIGMS became NIH deputy director in November 1993. She was appointed director of NIGMS on September 1, 1974.

A native of Brooklyn, N.Y., she received her B.A. degree in 1947 from Long Island University and her M.D. in 1951 from Tulane University School of Medicine. She interned in medicine and surgery at Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, and did residencies in pathology at Providence Hospital, Detroit; Tulane University School of Medicine; and the Clinical Center, NIH.

From 1957 to 1972, Dr. Kirschstein performed research in experimental pathology at the Division of Biologics Standards (now the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA). During that time, she helped develop and refine tests to assure the safety of viral vaccines for such diseases as polio, measles, and rubella. Her work on polio led to selection of the Sabin vaccine for public use. For her role in this work, she received the DHEW Superior Service Award in 1971.

In 1972 she became assistant director of the Division of Biologics Standards. That same year, when the division was transferred to the FDA as a bureau, she was appointed deputy director. She subsequently served as deputy associate commissioner for science, FDA, before being named NIGMS director. From September 1990 to September 1991, she was also acting associate director of the NIH for research on women's health.

Dr. Kirschstein has twice taken part in World Health Organization deliberations in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1965 as a member of the WHO Expert Group on International Requirements for Biological Substances, and in 1967 as a consultant concerning problems related to the use of live poliovirus oral vaccine.

She has received many honors and awards, including the PHS Superior Service Award, 1978; the Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award, 1980; election to the Institute of Medicine, 1982; the PHS Equal Opportunity Achievement Award, 1983; a doctor of science, honoris causa, degree from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 1984; the PHS Special Recognition Award, 1985; the Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award, 1985; the Distinguished Executive Service Award of the Senior Executive Association, 1985; an honorary doctor of laws degree from Atlanta University, 1985; an honorary doctor of science degree from the Medical College of Ohio, 1986; the Harvey Wiley FDA Commissioner's Special Citation, 1987; selection by the Office of Personnel Management as 1 of 10 outstanding executives and organizations for its first group of "Profiles in Excellence," 1989; the Dr. Nathan Davis Award from the American Medical Association, 1990; an honorary doctor of humane letters degree from Long Island University in 1991; election as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1992 and the Public Service Award from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in 1993.

She is the author of more than 70 scientific papers in the fields of viral pathology, viral oncology, and the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.

Michael Gottesman, M.D.

A well-known and respected basic cancer researcher who has focused on multidrug resistance in human cells, Dr. Michael Gottesman was appointed NIH deputy director for intramural research (DDIR) in November 1993. He had been acting DDIR for the previous year and was acting director of the National Center for Human Genome Research from 1992 to 1993. He continues as chief of NCIís Laboratory of Cell Biology, a post he has held since 1990.

He received his B.A. degree from Harvard College in 1966 and earned his M.D. degree at Harvard Medical School in 1970.

In 1971 Dr. Gottesman came to NIH as a research associate in the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases (now NIDDK), where he worked for 3 years. He spent a year as an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and, together with his wife, joined the permanent staff of NCI in 1976. He became chief of the molecular cell genetics section, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, NCI, in 1980 and chief of the Laboratory of Cell Biology, NCI, in 1990.

At NIH, his research interests have ranged from how DNA is replicated in bacteria to how cancer cells elude chemotherapy. In the past several years--collaborating with Dr. Ira Pastan, chief of NCIís Laboratory of Molec-ular Biology, he has identified the human gene responsible for resistance of cancer cells to many of the most common anticancer drugs and has shown that this gene encodes a protein which acts to pump anticancer drugs out of drug-resistant human cancers.

This evidence supports the proposal, now widely accepted, that gp170 is an energy-dependent pump, ferrying molecules of toxins or of drugs out of the cell. For several years, Dr. Gottesman has been examining clinical applications of his gp170 findings using gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and reversing agents to fight MDR. He recently observed that derivatives of verapamil and other gp170 inhibitors reverse MDR in human renal carcinoma cells in vitro, and in transgenic mice.

His research has earned him many awards, including the Milken Family Foundation Award for Cancer Research, 1990; C.E. Alken Prize, 1991; Samuel G. Taylor III Award for Excellence in Cancer Research, 1991; Jefferson Cancer Institute Prize, 1991; and the Rosenthal Foundation Award, 1992. He was elected a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1988.

Dr. Gottesman is also a member of the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and the American Society for Cell Biology. He has served on several editorial boards including the Journal of Cell Biology; the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry; Molecular Pharmacology; Molecular Biology of the Cell; Cancer Research; Cell Growth and Differentiation; Human Gene Therapy; and GenoMethods.

He has also been involved in initiating several training and mentoring initiatives at NIH. He has been the coordinator of the NIH-Howard Hughes Medical Institute summer scholar program for high school students and has organized a program under the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences to bring high school teachers to NIH to work in laboratories. As DDIR, he has instituted training for minority and disadvantaged students and loan repayment programs for clinical researchers at NIH.

Wendy Baldwin, Ph.D.

Dr. Wendy Baldwin was appointed NIH deputy director for extramural research in February 1994, after serving in an acting capacity since June 1993. She will guide the NIH institutes and centers in the development of policies for their extramural research and research training programs. She will also oversee--for NIH and PHS--programs aimed at protection of human subjects in research and the proper care and use of laboratory animals in scientific studies.

She has made significant scientific contributions, primarily in adolescent fertility, contraceptive practice, childbearing patterns, AIDS risk behaviors, and infant mortality. She has published widely and has served on many NIH panels and committees, including the panel on NIH research on antisocial, aggressive, and violence-related behaviors, as well as the NIH advisory committee on women's health issues.

Dr. Baldwin joined NIH in 1973 as a health scientist administrator with NICHD. In 1979 she became chief of NICHD's Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch in the Center for Population Research. She was named deputy director of NICHD in 1991, a post she held until her appointment as NIH deputy director for extramural research.

She earned her Ph.D. in demography in 1973 and her M.A. in 1970 from the University of Kentucky. She received her B.A. from Stetson University in 1967.

Among her professional activities, she served as a temporary advisor to the WHO task force for social science research on reproductive health, on a National Academy of Sciences panel on adolescent pregnancy, and on a scientifice advisory committee for demographic and health sciences. She is a past member several editorial boards.

Dr. Baldwin has received many professional awards from PHS, NIH, and outside organizations.

Deputy Directors of National Institutes of Health
Name Dates of Office
C. J. Van Slyke Dec. 3, 1958 Dec. 1, 1959
David E. Price July 1, 1960 June 30, 1962
Stuart M. Sessoms Aug. 1, 1962 July 31, 1968
Burroughs Mider1 July 1, 1960 May 19, 1968
John F. Sherman Nov. 1, 1968 Mar. 16, 1974
Robert W. Berliner2 Feb. 23, 1969 Sept. 1, 1973
Carl M. Leventha1 3 Sept. 1973 Feb. 1974
DeWitt Stetten, Jr.2 Mar 17, 1974 Sept. 11, 1979
Ronald W. Lamont-Havers Aug. 4, 1974 Sept. 25, 1976
Thomas E. Malone Mar. 24, 1977 Aug. 1, 1986
Robert Goldberger2 Sept. 11, 1979 June 26, 1981
Joseph E. Rall3 July 2, 1981 June 6, 1982
Phillip S. Chen, Jr.3 June 7, 1982 Mar. 18, 1983
William F. Raub5 Apr. 3, 1983 Nov. 1991
Joseph E. Rall5 June, 1983 May 13, 1991
Kathryn Bick4 May 19, 1987 Mar. 1990
John Diggs4 Mar. 23, 1936 Aug. 1990
Lance Liotta4 July 6, 1992  
Ruth L. Kirschstein November 1993  
Michael Gottesman5 November 1993  
Wendy Baldwin4 February 1994  
Anthony Itteilag January 7, 1996  
1 Had title "Director of Laboratories and Clinics"
2 For Science
3 For Science, Acting
4 For Extramural Research and Training
5 For Intramural Research