In 1932 he was commissioned in the regular corps and from 1936
to 1944 pursued a distinguished research career at the PHS Venereal
Disease Research Laboratory in Staten Island, N.Y. In 1944, he was
made assistant chief, Venereal Disease Division, Washington, D.C.
Dr. Van Slyke joined NIH in 1946 as chief of the newly established
Research Grants Office, later renamed the Division of Research Grants,
serving there until named director of NHI on August 1, 1948. He
left NHI on November 30, 1952, to serve as associate director of
NIH, a post he held until named NIH deputy director.
Francisco. In 1946, he received his doctorate in public health
at Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health.
Following a tour of duty in the Venereal Disease Division, PHS,
he was assigned first to the DRG as assistant to the chief (1946-47)
and then to the NCI as chief of the Research Grants Branch (1947-48).
He returned to DRG in 1948 as chief, a post he held until he was
named NIH associate director for extramural affairs (1950-52).
After a series of key appointments in the Office of the Surgeon
General, the Bureau of Medical Services and the Bureau of State
Services, Dr. Price was named deputy director of NIH on July 1,
1960. Two years later, he was appointed deputy surgeon general,
He retired from the service in 1965. Since his retirement, he
has been associated with the Ford Foundation and the American Public
Dr. Price was director of planning of the medical institutions,
the Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Md. He retired
on July 1, 1980, from Johns Hopkins.
During this period, Dr. Sessoms served also as NCI associate director
(1960), and associate director for collaborative research (1961)
with responsibility for the institute's Virology Research Resources
Branch, in addition to his duties at the Cancer Chemotherapy National
He became the third NIH deputy director on August 1, 1962, serving
in that capacity until his retirement July 31, 1968. On retirement,
he held the rank of assistant surgeon general (rear admiral) in
During his career at NIH, Dr. Sessoms was the recipient of two
Meritorious Service Awards for his accomplishments as head of the
Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center, and for "outstanding
ability and achievements in the development, operation and staffing" of
the Regional Medical Programs.
A native of North Carolina, he received his B.S. in pharmacy at
the University of North Carolina in 1943 and his M.D. from the Medical
College of Virginia in 1946.
On retiring after 25 years of government service, Dr. Sessoms
joined Duke University.
On Jan. 1, 1976, he was named president of Blue Cross and Blue
Shield of North Carolina.
He first came to NIH as a research fellow, NCI, in 1939. On completing
the fellowship, he became an instructor in pathology and assistant
professor of pathology (1941-44) at Cornell Medical College. Concurrently,
he was an assistant pathologist at New York Hospital.
Then came assignments as associate professor of pathology, University
of Virginia School of Medicine (1944-45) and research associate
in surgery and professor of cancer research, University of Rochester
School of Medicine and Dentistry (1945-52).
On returning to NIH in 1952, he became NCI associate director
in charge of research. In 1960 he was appointed NIH director of
laboratories and clinics. In May 1968, Dr. Mider transferred to
the NLM as special assistant to the director for medical program
development and evaluation. The following year he was named acting
deputy director, and in 1970 became NLM deputy director.
In 1960, he was the recipient of a DHEW Distinguished Service
Award. Dr. Mider retired from the Library on June 30, 1972, to accept
the position of executive officer for the Universities Associated
for Research and Education in Pathology, Inc., and the American
Society of Experimental Pathology.
He came to NIH in January 1953 as a research pharmacologist in
the Laboratory of Tropical Diseases, National Microbiological Institute
which became the NIAID in 1955.
In July 1956, Dr. Sherman joined the staff of the NIAMD as assistant
to the chief of extramural programs. He became assistant chief of
the institute's extramural programs in August 1957, and deputy chief
in October 1958.
On July 1, 1961, he was appointed associate director for extramural
programs, NINDB. He rejoined the NIAMD in 1962 as associate director
for extramural programs, serving in that capacity until January
1, 1964, when he was named NIH associate director for extramural
He received his B.S. in 1949 from the Union University College
of Pharmacy in Albany, N.Y., and his Ph. D. in pharmacology in 1953
from Yale University.
He is the author of numerous scientific papers and articles in
his field of research. In 1971, he received a DHEW Distinguished
Dr. Sherman left NIH in 1974 to become vice president of the Association
of American Medical Colleges and director of the association's department
of planning and policy development.
Dr. Berliner, the first NIH deputy director for science, is an
internationally renowned renal physiologist whose research in the
field has contributed to understanding of the control of the excretion
of sodium and potassium salts.
For 12 years (1950-62), he was chief of the Laboratory of Kidney
and Electrolyte Metabolism, NHI, and from 1954 to 1968 served as
the institute's director of intramural research.
In 1968, he was appointed director of laboratories and clinics,
NIH. He was named to the newly created post of deputy director for
science in 1969.
Prior to joining NIH in 1950, Dr. Berliner was assistant professor
of medicine at Columbia University, and research associate with
the New York City department of hospitals.
Born in New York City, he received his B.S. from Yale University
and his M.D. from Columbia University in 1939. He served his internship
and residency at the Presbyterian Hospital and Goldwater Memorial
Hospital, respectively, both in New York.
He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1968. Other
honors include the PHS Distinguished Service Award (1962), the Homer
W. Smith Award (1965), the Modern Medicine Award for Distinguished
Achievement (1969), and the American Heart Association's Research
Achievement Award (1970).
Dr. Berliner left NIH to accept appointment as dean of the Yale
University Medical School in September 1973.
He was in New York City, he received his A.B. degree from Harvard
College in 1930, and his M.D. and Ph. D. from Columbia University
in 1934 and 1940, respectively. From 1934 to 1937, he took his internship
and residency at Bellevue Hospital in New York. Dr. Stetten then
joined the staff at Columbia University for 9 years, serving successively
as assistant instructor and assistant professor of biochemistry.
In 1947, he was appointed assistant professor in biological chemistry
at the Harvard Medical School. From 1948 to 1954, he was chief of
the division of nutrition and physiology for the Public Health Research
Institute of New York City.
Dr. Stetten first came to NIH in 1954 as director of the intramural
research program of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic
Diseases. In that capacity, he directed institute programs on basic
and clinical research in diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, and disorders
of the blood, bone, and liver. He left NIH in 1962 to become the
first dean of the Rutgers Medical School, a position he held until
his return to NIH on October 1, 1970, as director of the National
Institute of General Medical Sciences.
The American Diabetes Association awarded Dr. Stetten the Banting
Medal in 1957. In 1963, he delivered the 22nd annual NIH Lecture
on the "History and Natural History of Gout."
Among his many honors were the DHEW Superior Service Honor Award
(1973) DHEW Distinguished Service Award (1977).
He also received honorary D.Sc. degrees from Washington University
(1974), and from the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
Author of more than 100 original papers in his field of research,
and coauthor of the early editions of the textbook, Principles
of Biochemistry. Dr. Stetten served on the editorial boards
of numerous scientific and medical journals. He was president of
the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (1972-74),
and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the NAS
Council. He was president of the Society for Experimental Biology
and Medicine, 1977-79.
Dr. Stetten was named senior scientific advisor to the NIH director
in September 1979. He died on August 28, 1990.
Prior to this appointment, he had been deputy director of the
National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases
(1972-74), and NIH associate director for extramural research and
training for 4 years (1968-72).
He received his B.A. in 1942 from the University of British Columbia,
Canada, and M.D. in 1946 from the University of Toronto. He took
staff and residency training (1946-48) at the Vancouver General
Hospital, and residency in internal medicine (1949-51) at the Queen
Mary Veterans Hospital in Montreal. From 1951 to 1953, he was a
fellow of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society at Columbia
Presbyterian Hospital, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia
University. He also received a diploma in internal medicine in 1953
from McGill University.
He came to NIH in 1964 as associate director for extramural programs,
NIAMD. From 1955 to 1964 he was national medical director of the
Arthritis Foundation and an instructor in medicine, College of Physicians
and Surgeons, Columbia University. Prev-iously, he served as medical
director of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society, British
Columbia division, Vancouver, from 1953 to 1955, and as associate
medical director, Student Health Service, University of British
Dr. Lamont-Havers, author or coauthor of numerous papers on arthritis
and rheumatism, was honored in June 1973 with a DHEW Superior Service
He left NIH in September 1976 to become deputy for research policy
and administration to the general director, Massachusetts General
He earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees from North Carolina Central
University in 1948 and 1949 respectively, and his Ph.D. from Harvard
University in 1952. During the period 1950-52 he held a teaching
fellowship at Harvard University.
Dr. Malone was professor of zoology at N.C. Central University
in Durham from 1952 to 1958. He left that position to accept a postdoctoral
fellowship of the NAS National Research Council, serving as a resident
research associate at Argonne National Laboratory from 1958 to 1959.
He subsequently served on the faculty at Loyola University in Chicago
until joining the NIH staff in 1962.
He came to NIH as a member of the Grants Associates Program. After
completing a year's training, he joined the staff of the National
Institute of Dental Research in 1963, serving in several capacities--from
1963 to 1964 he was assistant chief of the research grants section;
1964 to 1966, deputy chief, extramural programs; and 1966 to 1967,
chief, periodontal diseases and soft tissue studies, extramural
In 1967 Dr. Malone accepted a position as professor and chairman
of the department of biology at the American University of Beirut,
Lebanon. He returned to NIDR in 1969, where he was associate director
for extramural programs until 1972 when he was appointed NIH associate
director for extramural research and training, a position which
he held until his appointment as deputy director of NIH.
He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and of numerous other
professional organizations in health research and administration.
In June 1971 Dr. Malone received the DHEW Superior Service Award
and was honored in April 1974 with the DHEW Distinguished Service
Award . In October 1975 the American College of Dentists presented
him with a Certificate of Merit. He received a Senior Executive
Service Presidential Merit Award in 1980 and a Senior Executive
Service Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award in 1983.
He served as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the 31st through
35th World Health Assemblies and has participated in numerous other
international health activities.
Upon the resignation of Dr. Fredrickson, Dr. Malone was named
acting NIH director until the appointment of Dr. Wyngaarden.
After receiving his A.B. degree from Harvard College in 1954,
he attended the New York University Medical School, where he obtained
an M.D. in 1958. He interned at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York,
and then spent 2 years as a postdoctoral fellow at the University
of Wisconsin's Institute for Enzyme Research. He came to the NIH
as a research associate in the National Heart Institute in 1961,
working with Dr. C. B. Anfinsen on the mechanism by which newly
synthesized polypeptide chains attain three-dimensional structures
characteristic of native proteins. In 1963 he was a visiting scientist
at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Dr. Goldberger served as a biochemist in the Laboratory of Chemical
Biology, NIAMD, from 1963 to 1966, when he became chief of that
laboratory's Biosynthesis and Control Section. He worked on regulation
of gene expression in bacteria.
In 1973 he moved to the NCI's Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis,
where, as chief of the cellular regulation section, he worked on
hormonal regulation of gene expression in avian liver.
Dr. Goldberger has written one book on biochemistry and has edited
a multivolume treatise on biological regulation. From 1970 to 1971
he served as president of NIH's Inter-Assembly Council of the Assemblies
of Scientists. He received the Superior Service Award, DHEW, in
1973 and the Meritorious Service Medal, USPHS, in 1977.
At the end of June 1981, he left NIH to accept a dual position
as provost of Columbia University and vice president for health
sciences, and as a professor of chemistry.
Upon the resignation of Dr. James B. Wyngaarden, July 31, 1989,
Dr. Raub was named acting NIH director.
He was NIH associate director for extramural research and training
previous to this appointment. He has served as associate director,
National Eye Institute (1975-78), and chief, Biotechnology Resources
Branch, Division of Research Resources (1969-75). He joined NIH
Dr. Raub led the effort to develop the PROPHET system, a national
computer resource for pharmacologists and others who study chemical/biological
interactions. PROPHET is the most nearly comprehensive set of information-handling
tools for this area of science ever to be presented in a unified
system, and offered as a service to the biomedical community.
A graduate of Wilkes College in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., in 1961, he
received his Ph.D. in 1965 from the University of Pennsylvania.
With NIH since 1955, he was director of the division of intramural
research at the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive
and Kidney Diseases for more than 20 years.
Dr. Rall received his M.D. from Northwestern University School
of Medicine (1945) and Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota (1952).
He has received honorary degrees from North Central College, Naperville,
Ill. (1966), the Free University of Brussels (1975), and the University
of Naples (1985). He was elected to the NAS in 1980 and to the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1985. In 1988 he was invited to
become a member of the scientific advisory committee for the International
Human Frontier Science Program.
He is a member of many organizations and the coauthor of more
than 160 scientific articles. His research involves the areas of
thyroid hormones, iodine metabolism, and thyroid diseases.
In addition to the Van Meter Prize (1950) and the Robert Williams
Distinguished Leadership Award of the Endocrine Society (1983),
Dr. Rall has received the Arthur S. Flemming Award (1959), the DHHS
Superior Service Award (1965) and Distinguished Service Award (1968).
She joined NIH in 1976 as a scientist administrator in the Neurological
Disorders Program, NINCDS. In September 1983 she was appointed NINCDS
deputy director, after serving in an acting capacity since February
1981. While in this position she received a PHS Special Achievement
Award for sustained superior work performance.
A native of Canada, Dr. Bick received her undergraduate degree
from Acadia University, Nova Scotia, and earned her Ph.D. from Brown
University. She has held academic positions at Georgetown University
and California State University, Northridge, and research positions
at the UCLA School of Medicine and the University of Western Ontario.
Among her many honors are the PHS Superior Service Award (1986),
Senior Executive Service Bonus Award for Performance (1984-88),
and the NIH Director's Award (1977). In 1989 she received a Presidential
Senior Rank Award.
Dr. Bick left NIH in April 1990.
A biology major at Lane College in Jackson, Tenn., he earned his
M.S. (1969) and Ph.D. (1972) in physiology from Howard University.
His postdoctoral work included serving as a senior research physiologist
at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
Dr. Diggs joined NINDS in 1974 as a health scientist administrator
and received the institute's Special Achievement Award in 1979.
He received the NIH Director's Award in 1985, the Presidential Meritorious
Executive Rank Award in 1987, and the PHS Superior Service Award
Included in his other honors are the Super Achiever in Science
Award of Lane College National Alumni (1989), Merit Award of the
District of Columbia General Hospital (1989), Outstanding Service
Award of Montgomery Count Department of Health (1989), Outstanding
Service Award of Maryland Congress of Parents and Teachers, Inc.
(1989), the Distinguished Senior Professional Award from the International
Professional Management Association (1986), and Howard's Distinguished
Alumni Award (1979).
He earned his A.B. degree in general science and biology from
Hiram College in Ohio, followed by his Ph.D. in biomedical engineering
and biomathematics from Case Western Reserve University. In 1976
he earned his M.D. from Case Western and joined NIH as a PHS resident
physician in the NCI Laboratory of Pathology.
Dr. Liotta has devoted his career to the study of cancer invasion
and metastasis, the major cause of cancer treatment failure. He
was one of the first scientists to investigate this process at the
molecular level. In 1975 he proposed that tumor cell attachment
and degradation of the basement membrane (a collagenous sheath that
surrounds epithelial ducts, blood vessels and nerves, and separates
tissue compartments) was crucial to invasion and metastasis.
He found that disruption of the basement membrane is the general
hallmark of the transition from in situ to invasive cancer for all
human epithelial cancers. He discovered metallo-proteinases produced
by tumor cells that degrade the metastasis; TIMP-2 (Dr. William
Stetler-Stevenson), a new protein that inhibits invasion and angiogenesis;
laminin-binding proteins (Dr. Mark Sobel) that mediate tumor cell
attachment; and autotaxin (Dr. Mary Stracke), a protein that profoundly
Dr. Liotta's group also developed the first synthetic compound
(CAI) (Dr. Elise Kohn) that blocks cancer metastasis growth by inhibiting
selected signal transduction pathways. CAI has now entered clinical
phase I trials under support from the Division of Cancer Treatment.
He is a member of the International Metastasis Research Society,
American Association for Cancer Research, American Association of
Pathologists, American Society of Cell Biology, American Society
for Clinical Investigation, and the International Academy of Pathology.
Dr. Liotta has received numerous awards including three PHS Commissioned
Corps Medals, the Arthur S. Flemming Award, the Warner Lambert/Parke
Davis Award, the Josef Steiner Prize, and the Lil Gruber Research
Award. He holds more than 30 patents for his work.
A native of Brooklyn, N.Y., she received her B.A. degree in 1947
from Long Island University and her M.D. in 1951 from Tulane University
School of Medicine. She interned in medicine and surgery at Kings
County Hospital, Brooklyn, and did residencies in pathology at Providence
Hospital, Detroit; Tulane University School of Medicine; and the
Clinical Center, NIH.
From 1957 to 1972, Dr. Kirschstein performed research in experimental
pathology at the Division of Biologics Standards (now the Center
for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA). During that time, she
helped develop and refine tests to assure the safety of viral vaccines
for such diseases as polio, measles, and rubella. Her work on polio
led to selection of the Sabin vaccine for public use. For her role
in this work, she received the DHEW Superior Service Award in 1971.
In 1972 she became assistant director of the Division of Biologics
Standards. That same year, when the division was transferred to
the FDA as a bureau, she was appointed deputy director. She subsequently
served as deputy associate commissioner for science, FDA, before
being named NIGMS director. From September 1990 to September 1991,
she was also acting associate director of the NIH for research on
Dr. Kirschstein has twice taken part in World Health Organization
deliberations in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1965 as a member of the
WHO Expert Group on International Requirements for Biological Substances,
and in 1967 as a consultant concerning problems related to the use
of live poliovirus oral vaccine.
She has received many honors and awards, including the PHS Superior
Service Award, 1978; the Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank
Award, 1980; election to the Institute of Medicine, 1982; the PHS
Equal Opportunity Achievement Award, 1983; a doctor of science,
honoris causa, degree from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 1984; the
PHS Special Recognition Award, 1985; the Presidential Distinguished
Executive Rank Award, 1985; the Distinguished Executive Service
Award of the Senior Executive Association, 1985; an honorary doctor
of laws degree from Atlanta University, 1985; an honorary doctor
of science degree from the Medical College of Ohio, 1986; the Harvey
Wiley FDA Commissioner's Special Citation, 1987; selection by the
Office of Personnel Management as 1 of 10 outstanding executives
and organizations for its first group of "Profiles in Excellence," 1989;
the Dr. Nathan Davis Award from the American Medical Association,
1990; an honorary doctor of humane letters degree from Long Island
University in 1991; election as a fellow of the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences, 1992 and the Public Service Award from the
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in 1993.
She is the author of more than 70 scientific papers in the fields
of viral pathology, viral oncology, and the pathogenesis of infectious
He received his B.A. degree from Harvard College in 1966 and earned
his M.D. degree at Harvard Medical School in 1970.
In 1971 Dr. Gottesman came to NIH as a research associate in the
National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases
(now NIDDK), where he worked for 3 years. He spent a year as an
assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and, together with
his wife, joined the permanent staff of NCI in 1976. He became chief
of the molecular cell genetics section, Laboratory of Molecular
Biology, NCI, in 1980 and chief of the Laboratory of Cell Biology,
NCI, in 1990.
At NIH, his research interests have ranged from how DNA is replicated
in bacteria to how cancer cells elude chemotherapy. In the past
several years--collaborating with Dr. Ira Pastan, chief of NCIís
Laboratory of Molec-ular Biology, he has identified the human gene
responsible for resistance of cancer cells to many of the most common
anticancer drugs and has shown that this gene encodes a protein
which acts to pump anticancer drugs out of drug-resistant human
This evidence supports the proposal, now widely accepted, that
gp170 is an energy-dependent pump, ferrying molecules of toxins
or of drugs out of the cell. For several years, Dr. Gottesman has
been examining clinical applications of his gp170 findings using
gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and reversing agents to fight
MDR. He recently observed that derivatives of verapamil and other
gp170 inhibitors reverse MDR in human renal carcinoma cells in vitro,
and in transgenic mice.
His research has earned him many awards, including the Milken
Family Foundation Award for Cancer Research, 1990; C.E. Alken Prize,
1991; Samuel G. Taylor III Award for Excellence in Cancer Research,
1991; Jefferson Cancer Institute Prize, 1991; and the Rosenthal
Foundation Award, 1992. He was elected a fellow in the American
Association for the Advancement of Science in 1988.
Dr. Gottesman is also a member of the American Association for
Cancer Research, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology, and the American Society for Cell Biology. He has served
on several editorial boards including the Journal of Cell Biology;
the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry;
Molecular Pharmacology; Molecular Biology of the Cell; Cancer Research;
Cell Growth and Differentiation; Human Gene Therapy; and GenoMethods.
He has also been involved in initiating several training and mentoring
initiatives at NIH. He has been the coordinator of the NIH-Howard
Hughes Medical Institute summer scholar program for high school
students and has organized a program under the Foundation for Advanced
Education in the Sciences to bring high school teachers to NIH to
work in laboratories. As DDIR, he has instituted training for minority
and disadvantaged students and loan repayment programs for clinical
researchers at NIH.
She has made significant scientific contributions, primarily in
adolescent fertility, contraceptive practice, childbearing patterns,
AIDS risk behaviors, and infant mortality. She has published widely
and has served on many NIH panels and committees, including the
panel on NIH research on antisocial, aggressive, and violence-related
behaviors, as well as the NIH advisory committee on women's health
Dr. Baldwin joined NIH in 1973 as a health scientist administrator
with NICHD. In 1979 she became chief of NICHD's Demographic and
Behavioral Sciences Branch in the Center for Population Research.
She was named deputy director of NICHD in 1991, a post she held
until her appointment as NIH deputy director for extramural research.
She earned her Ph.D. in demography in 1973 and her M.A. in 1970
from the University of Kentucky. She received her B.A. from Stetson
University in 1967.
Among her professional activities, she served as a temporary advisor
to the WHO task force for social science research on reproductive
health, on a National Academy of Sciences panel on adolescent pregnancy,
and on a scientifice advisory committee for demographic and health
sciences. She is a past member several editorial boards.
Dr. Baldwin has received many professional awards from PHS, NIH,
and outside organizations.