NIH Lectures

The NIH Lecture series was established to facilitate interchange of information and to give appropriate recognition for outstanding scientific accomplishment. Since January 1953, the various institutes and the Office of the Director have sponsored lectures. The series has been planned to recur each year, with the lectures published and distributed to scientific libraries, universities, medical schools, and other appropriate depositories. Lectures are open to the scientific staff at NIH and at other medical, teaching, and research institutions in the Washington, D.C., area. As part of the NIH Lecture series, an annual G. Burroughs Mider Lectureship Award was established in 1968 in honor of the first NIH director of laboratories and clinics, to be presented by a member of the NIH intramural staff in "recognition and appreciation of outstanding contributions to biomedical research." An asterisk (*) indicates a Mider Lecture. The following lectures have been given.

January 21, 1953
"Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle: Enzymatic Mecha- nisms"
Severo Ochoa

September 24, 1953
"Enzymatic Analysis of the Structure of Starch and Glycogen"
Carl F. Cori
September 30, 1954
"The Natural History of Changing One"s Job"
Alan Gregg

December 16, 1954
"Avirulent Strains of Poliomyelitis Virus-- Segregation, Characterization, Role in Nature, and Potential Usefulness for Human Immunization"
Albert B. Sabin

May 31, 1955
"Some Recent Developments Concerning the Chemical Transmission of Nervous Effects"
Sir Henry Hallett Dale

May 1, 1957
"The Nature of Molecular Disease"
Linus Pauling

January 22, 1958
"Relation of Physical Science to Life Science: Communication Theory"
W. O. Baker

May 14, 1958
"Bioenergetics"
Albert Szent-Gyorgyi

October 7, 1958
"The Energy Exchanges Involved in Muscular Contraction and Nerve Conduction"
Archibald Vivian Hill

May 5, 1959
"The Biochemical Evolution of Vision"
George Wald

October 13, 1959
"Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)"
Arthur Kornberg

February 9, 1960
"Biosythesis in Human Cell Cultures"
Harry Eagle

April 26, 1960
"From Fish to Philosopher"
Homer W. Smith

May 18, 1960
"The Biologist Examines the Mind and Behavior"
Seymour S. Kety

October 4, 1960
"Conscious Experience--What the Brain Records and Where"
Wilder Penfield

December 14, 1960
"An Enzymatic Approach to Nucleic Acid Chemistry"
Leon A. Heppel

January 25, 1961
"Inquiries Concerning the Fine Structure of Protein Molecules"
John T. Edsall

March 15, 1961
"Viruses, Common Colds and Cancer"
Robert J. Huebner

November 15, 1961
"Endocrine Aspects of the Cancer Problem"
Roy Hertz

February 28, 1962
"Relationship Between Structure and Host Reactive Properties of Microorganisms"
Edgar Ribi

April 25, 1962
"Photosynthesis"
Melvin Calvin

October 17, 1962
"Status of Transuranium Elements"
Glenn T. Seaborg

December 12, 1962
"Intercellular Infection and the Carrier State"
Joseph E. Smadel

February 27, 1963
"The History and Natural History of Gout"
DeWitt Stetten, Jr.

September 5, 1963
"Cardiovascular Surgery--Past and Present""
Alfred Blalock

December 4, 1963
"On the Nature of the RNA Code"
Marshall W. Nirenberg

February 5, 1964
"Studies in the Sociology of Science"
Robert E. Merton

February 19, 1964
"Controlling Elements and Regulatory Circuits in Cellular Metabolism"
Jacques Monod

October 20, 1964
"Some Biological Implications of Protein Structure"
Christian B. Anfinsen

December 15, 1964
"Research in Education"
Jerome Wiesner

January 13, 1965
"Giant Nerve Fibres"
Alan L. Hodgkin

October 20, 1965
"Tissue Remodeling Mechanisms in Amphibian Metamorphosis"
Jerome Gross

December 8, 1965
"Tissue Transplantation: Past, Present and Future"
Rupert E. Billingham

February 9, 1966
"Quantitative Measures of Size and Significance and Relatedness of Scientific Literature"
Derek de Solla Price

November 2, 1966
"The Cellular Regulation of Branched Biosynthetic Pathways"
Earl R. Stadtman

December 7, 1966
"The Natural History of Some Small Brains"
Caryl Parker Haskins

February 8, 1967
"Recent Studies on Microsomes"
George E. Palade

October 25, 1967
"The Pineal Gland, a Biological Clock"
Julius Axelrod

December 13, 1967
"Developmental Biology: The Richness of New Opportunity"
James D. Ebert

February 21, 1968
"Operant Conditioning and the Management of Human Behavior"
Burrhus F. Skinner

October 30, 1968
"On the Synthesis and Functions of Glutamine and Asparigine"
Alton Meister

December 11, 1968*
"Control of Gene Activity in Higher Organisms"
Gordon M. Tomkins

February 12, 1969
"The Role of Mathematical Models in Sciences"
Mark Kac

March 11, 1970*
"Tumor Antigens: Their Origins, Characteristics and Significance"
Lloyd W. Law

April 22, 1970
"Genetic Dissection of Visual Behavior in Drosophila"
Seymour Benzer

October 21, 1970
"Viewing Living Synapses and Exploration of the Chemosensitivity of the Neuronal Surface"
Stephen William Kuffler

Decembe 2, 1970
"Fructose Diphosphatase and the Control of Gluconegenesis"
Bernard L. Horecker

December 16, 1970*
"Genetic Mismanagement of Complex Lipids"
Roscoe O. Brady

October 7, 1971
"The Analysis of Malignancy by Cell Fusion"
Henry Harris

January 19, 1972
"The Replication of Single-Stranded DNA Bacteriophages: Facts and Riddles"
Robert L. Sinsheimer

February 9, 1972*
"Survival Mechanisms of the Triune Brain: Some Hopeful Aspects"
Paul D. MacLean

March 15, 1972
"Science and Trans-Science"
Alvin M. Weinberg

October 25, 1972
"Tensile Water"
Per F. Scholander

November 8, 1972
"Behavior of Chimpanzees and Their Natural Habitat"
Jane Goodall

March 14, 1973*
"Genetic Factors in the Transmission and Expression of Murine Leukemia Virus"
Wallace P. Rowe

April 11, 1973
"The Hormones of the Hypothalamus"
Roger Guillemin

October 17, 1973
"The Changing Significance of Territoriality in Human Societies"
Margaret Mead

November 7, 1973*
"Cyclic AMP and the Transformation of Cells"
Ira H. Pastan

December 12, 1973
"Probing Into Immunological Phenomena: From Molecule to Cell"
Michael Sela

March 20, 1974
"Some Phases of Oxidative Hydroxylation of Steroids in the Animal Organism"
Percy Julian

April 24, 1974
"The Prostaglandins-Bioregulators With Clinical Implications"
Sune Bergström

October 9, 1974*
"Inherited Lysosomal Disorders Studied in Cell Culture"
Elizabeth Neufeld

March 26, 1975
"Ion Transport in Reconstituted Systems and in Cancer Cells"
Efraim Racker

April 9, 1975
"Visual Deprivation and Its Effects on the Monkey Striate Cortex"
Torsten N. Wiesel

September 10, 1975*
"Collagen: Its Chemistry, Structure, and Function"
Karl A. Piez

November 17, 1976
"Dissections and Reconstruction of the SV40 Genome"
Paul Berg

December 8, 1976
"Cell Surface Modulation"
Gerald Edelman

March 2, 1977
"Early Man"
Mary Leakey

May 18, 1977*
"Monkey Business: Sequences in the Monkey Genome and Their Interaction With Simian Virus 40 DNA"
Maxine F. Singer

November 2, 1977*
"A Close and Surprising Look at the Mammalian Genome"
Philip Leder

March 29, 1978
"Cellular Insights Into Behavior and Learning"
Eric Kandel

May 10, 1978
"Total Synthesis of a Biologically Functional Gene"
Har Gobind Khorana

September 13, 1978*
"Receptor Disorders in Man"
Jesse Roth

December 6, 1978
"Turning Cancer Cells Into Mice"
Beatrice Mintz

May 2, 1979
"Gene Amplication and Methotrexate Resistance in Cultured Mammalian Cells"
Robert T. Schimke

June 13, 1979
"In Rodin"s Studio"
Albert Elsen

September 12, 1979
"Drugs, Neurotransmitters, and the Brain"
Solomon H. Snyder

October 17, 1979*
"Regulation of Cyclic Nucleotide Metabolism"
Martha Vaughan

November 28, 1979
"The Structure and Evolution of Genes"
Walter Gilbert

February 27, 1980*
"The Control of the Immune Response: Regla- tory Cellular Interactions and the Control of Lymphocyte Differentiation"
Thomas Waldmann

May 7, 1980
"Hepatitis B Virus and the Pathogenesis and Prevention of Cancer of the Liver"
Baruch S. Blumberg

October 1, 1980
"Mutational Analysis of a Viral Replicon"
Daniel Nathans

December 10, 1980*
"Metabolic Mapping of Local Functional Activity in the Central Nervous System"
Louis Sokoloff

May 27, 1981
"The Current Status of the Hepatic Membrane Receptor for Desialylated Serum Glycoproteins"
Gilbert Ashwell

December 2, 1981
"Cell Surface Receptors for Plasma Lipoproteins: Implications for Biology and Medicine"
Joseph L. Goldstein

September 15, 1982*
"Living With Lymphocytes, or B Lymphocytes and How They Grow"
William E. Paul

October 27, 1982
"Information Processing in a Simple Sensory System: Bacterial Chemotaxis"
Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.

November 17, 1982
"Autoantibodies as Probes for Small Ribonucle- oproteins From Eukaryotes"
Joan A. Steitz

January 25, 1984
"Charge Distribution, Electrostatic Fields, and Enzyme Function"
Frederic M. Richards

March 21, 1984
"Cancer Genes Come of Age"
J. Michael Bishop

April 18, 1984*
"Movement, Mood and Memory: Linked Functions in the Mammalian Brain"
Edward V. Evarts

September 12, 1984*
"Enhancers: Regulatory Elements in Eukaryotic Gene Expression"
George Khoury

November 7, 1984
"Neuronal Replacement in Adulthood and Its Possible Relation to Learning"
Fernando Nottebohm

November 28, 1984
"Gene Expression in Developing and Adult Neurons"
Richard Axel

December 5, 1984
"Managing the Deficit"
Alice Rivlin

December 12, 1984
"Twenty Years A" Growing"
S. Dillon Ripley

December 4, 1985*
"Biochemical Regulation of Actinomycin- Dependent Cell Motility"
Edward D. Korn

March 5, 1986*
"Why Is DNA Supercoiled?"
Martin Gellert

May 19, 1986
"Misplacing Genes"
Philip Leder

June 4, 1986
"Insights into the Genetics of Thalassemia"
Yuet Wai Kan

January 14, 1987
"Vaccinia Virus: From Jenner to Genetic Engineering"
Bernard Moss

February 11, 1987*
"Molecular Embryology: New Approaches to Old Questions"
Igor B. Dawid

May 6, 1987
"Tracking the Causes of Diabetes Mellitus: From Viruses to Autoimmunity"
Abner Louis Notkins

September 23, 1987
"Inositol Lipids and Intracellular Communica tion"
Michael J. Berridge

June 22, 1988*
"Basement Membranes: Key Determinants of Differentiation and Their Role in Cancer Metastasis"
George Martin

November 2, 1988
"RNA as an Enzyme"
Thomas Cech

November 15, 1989*
"Switching Globin Genes On and Off: Chromatin Structure and Gene Expression"
Gary Felsenfeld

November 14, 1990
"Dystrophin Abnormalities in Neuromuscular Disease"
Louis M, Kunkel

January 16, 1991*
"Memory Circuits"
Mortimer Mishkin

February 13, 1991
"Mechanisms of Short-term and Long-term Memory"
Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.

April 3, 1991*
"Gene Sharing: Lens Crystallins, Enzymes, and Stress Proteins"
Joram Piatigorsky

May 23, 1991
"Molecular Genetics of Cancer Suppression"
Wen-Hwa Lee

June 13, 1991
"The Adrenergic Receptors"
Robert J. Lefkowitz

November 19, 1991
"Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Biological and Clinical Potentials"
Irving L. Weissman

January 22, 1992
"Molecular Analysis of Resistance to Anti- Cancer Drugs"
Michael M. Gottesman

March 25, 1992*
"Human Gene Therapy"
W. French Anderson, R. Michael Blaese, Steven A. Rosenberg

May 6, 1992
"Splicing of Nuclear Precursors to Messenger RNAs"
Phillip A. Sharp

May 21, 1992
"Creating Mice With Targetted Disruptions in Proto-oncogenes and Homeobox Genes"
Mario R. Capecchi

June 1, 1994
" Genetics of Breast Cancer "
Mary-Claire King

June 8, 1994
" The Health of the Spirit"
Jane Alexander

January 18, 1995*
" Brain Maps for Eye Movements"
Robert H. Wurtz

May 17, 1995
" Brain Waves and Brain Wiring"
Carla J. Schatz

April 25, 1995
"To See Ourselves as Others See Us: The Artist Looks at the Doctor"
Sherwin B. Nuland

May 24, 1995
"Alterinf Telomerase RNA: Enzymatic and Cellular Consequences"
Elizabeth H. Blackburn

November 1, 1995*
"DNA Replication Fidelity, Mismatch Repair, and Genome Stability"
Thomas A. Kunkel