Skip Over Navigation Links

The NIH Almanac

Nobel Laureates

Dozens of NIH-supported scientists from around the world have received Nobel Prizes for their groundbreaking achievements in Physiology or Medicine; Chemistry; Physics; and Economic Sciences. To date, 145 NIH supported researchers have been sole or shared recipients of 85 Nobel Prizes. Among these are individuals who have served as NIH staff scientists.

Laureates Field Year Supporting NIH Institute(s)
William E. Moerner, U.S.A. (shared with E. Betzig, U.S.A. and S.W. Hell, Germany) Chemistry 2014 NIGMS, NHGRI, NCRR
Martin Karplus, U.S.A. & France, Michael Levitt, U.S.A., and Arieh Warshel, U.S.A. Chemistry 2013 NEI, NIGMS, NCI
James E. Rothman, U.S.A., Randy W. Schekman, U.S.A., and Thomas C. Südhof, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 2013 NIGMS, NIAMS, NIDDK, NCI, NHGRI, NIMH, NINDS, NHLBI
Robert J. Lefkowitz, U.S.A., and Brian K. Kobilka, U.S.A. Chemistry 2012 NHLBI, NINDS, NIGMS, NIDA
Bruce A. Beutler, U.S.A., Jules A. Hoffmann, U.S.A., and Ralph M. Steinman, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 2011 NIAID, NIDDK, NIGMS, NCI
Ei-ichi Negishi, U.S.A. (shared with R. F. Heck, U.S.A. and A. Suzuki, Japan) Chemistry 2010 NIGMS
Thomas A. Steitz, U.S.A., Ada E. Yonath, Israel, and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, U.K. Chemistry 2009 NIGMS, NIAID, NCRR
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, U.S.A., Carol W. Greider, U.S.A., and Jack W. Szostak, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 2009 NIGMS, NCI, NIDCR, NIA
Martin Chalfie, U.S.A., Roger Y. Tsien, U.S.A., and Osamu Shimomura, U.S.A. Chemistry 2008 NIGMS, NINDS, NIAID, NIA, NEI
Mario R. Capecchi, U.S.A., and Oliver Smithies, U.S.A. (shared with M. J. Evans, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 2007 NIGMS, NHLBI, NIDDK, NCI, NICHD
Roger D. Kornberg, U.S.A. Chemistry 2006 NIGMS, NIAID, NCI
Andrew Z. Fire, U.S.A., and Craig C. Mello, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 2006 NIGMS, NICHD
Robert H. Grubbs, U.S.A., and Richard R. Schrock, U.S.A. (shared with Y. Chauvin, France) Chemistry 2005 NIGMS
Richard Axel, U.S.A., and Linda B. Buck, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 2004 NIDCD, NCI, NIAID, NIMH, NINDS, NIDDK
Irwin A. Rose, U.S.A., and Avram Hershko, Israel (shared with A. Ciechanover, Israel) Chemistry 2004 NIAMS, NCI, NIAAA, NIGMS, NIDDK
Roderick MacKinnon, U.S.A., and Peter Agre, U.S.A. Chemistry 2003 NHLBI, NEI, NIAAA, NIGMS, NCRR, NINDS, NIDDK
Paul C. Lauterbur, U.S.A. (shared with P. Mansfield, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 2003 NCRR, NCI, NHLBI, NIGMS, NIMH
John B. Fenn, U.S.A. (shared with K. Tanaka, Japan and K. Wüthrich, Switzerland) Chemistry 2002 NIGMS
H. Robert Horvitz, U.S.A. (shared with S. Brenner, U.S.A. and J.E. Sulston, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 2002 NIGMS, NCI, NICHD
Leland H. Hartwell, U.S.A. (shared with P.M. Nurse and R.T. Hunt, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 2001 NIGMS, NCI, NCRR
K. Barry Sharpless, U.S.A. (shared with W.S. Knowles, U.S.A. and R. Noyori, Japan) Chemistry 2001 NIGMS, NHLBI
Paul Greengard, U.S.A., and Eric R. Kandel, U.S.A. (shared with A. Carlsson, Sweden) Physiology or Medicine 2000 NIMH, NIA, NIDA, NIGMS, NINDS, NIAAA, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCRR
James J. Heckman, U.S.A. and Daniel L. McFadden Economic Sciences 2000 NIA, NICHD, NIMH
Günter Blobel, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1999 NIGMS, NCI
Robert Furchgott, U.S.A., Louis Ignarro, U.S.A., and Ferid Murad, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1998 NIAMS, NICHD, NIDDK, NIGMS, NHLBI, NINDS
Paul D. Boyer, U.S.A. and Jens C. Skou, Denmark Chemistry 1997 NIGMS, NIDDK, NINDS
Stanley B. Prusiner, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1997 NINDS, NIA, NCRR, NIGMS
Peter C. Doherty, U.S.A., and Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Switzerland Physiology or Medicine 1996 NIAID
Edward B. Lewis, U.S.A., and Eric F. Wieschaus, U.S.A. (shared with C. Nusslein-Volhard, Germany) Physiology or Medicine 1995 NICHD, NIGMS
Alfred G. Gilman, U.S.A., and Martin Rodbell, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1994 NIEHS, NIDDK, NIGMS, NINDS
George A. Olah, U.S.A. Chemistry 1994 NCI, NIGMS
Phillip A. Sharp, U.S.A., and Richard Roberts, U.K. Physiology or Medicine 1993 NIGMS, NCI, NIAID, NCRR, NLM, NCHGR
Robert W. Fogel, Ph.D. Economic Sciences 1993 NIA
Kary B. Mullis, U.S.A., and Michael Smith, Canada Chemistry 1993 NHBLI, NIAID, NIGMS
Edwin G. Krebs, U.S.A., and Edmond H. Fischer, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1992 NIDDK, NIGMS, NIAMS
Gary Becker, U.S.A. Economics 1992 NICHD
Elias J. Corey, U.S.A. Chemistry 1990 NIGMS, NCRR, NCI, NHLBI, NIAID
E. Donnall Thomas, U.S.A., and Joseph E. Murray, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1990 NIAID, NCI, NHLBI, NIAID, NIDDK
Sidney Altman, U.S.A., and Thomas Cech, U.S.A. Chemistry 1989 NCI, NIGMS, NICHD
J. Michael Bishop, U.S.A, and Harold E. Varmus, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1989 NCI, NIAID
Susumu Tonegawa, Japan Physiology or Medicine 1987 NIAID
Donald J. Cram, U.S.A. (shared with C.J. Pedersen, U.S.A., and J.-M Lehn, France) Chemistry 1987 NIGMS
Stanley Cohen, U.S.A., and Rita Levi-Montalcini, U.S.A./Italy Physiology or Medicine 1986 NICHD, NIGMS, NIMH, NINDS
Herbert A. Hauptman, U.S.A. (shared with J. Karle, U.S.A.) Chemistry 1985 NIGMS, NIADDK, NHLBI, DRR
Michael S. Brown, U.S.A., and Joseph L. Goldstein, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1985 NHLBI, NIGMS, DRR
R. Bruce Merrifield, U.S.A. Chemistry 1984 NIDDK
Henry Taube, U.S.A. Chemistry 1983 NIGMS
Sune Bergstrom, Sweden, and John R. Vane, U.K. (shared with B. Samuelsson, Sweden) Physiology or Medicine 1982 NHLBI, NLM, NICHD, DRG, NIGMS, NIMH
Aaron Klug, U.K. Chemistry 1982 NIAID
Roald Hoffmann, U.S.A. (shared with K. Fukui, Japan) Chemistry 1981 NIGMS
David H. Hubel, U.S.A., and Torsten N. Wiesel, U.S.A./Sweden (shared with R. W. Sperry, U.S.A.) Physiology or Medicine 1981 NEI, NIGMS, NINDS, DRR
Paul Berg, U.S.A., and Walter Gilbert, U.S.A. (shared with F. Sanger, U.K.) Chemistry 1980 NIGMS, NCI, NIDDK
Baruj Benacerraf, U.S.A., George D. Snell, U.S.A., and Jean Dausset, France Physiology or Medicine 1980 NIAID, NCI
Herbert C. Brown, U.S.A. (shared with G. Wittig, W. Germany) Chemistry 1979 NIGMS
Hamilton O. Smith, U.S.A., and Daniel Nathans, U.S.A. (shared with W. Arber, Switzerland) Physiology or Medicine 1978 NIGMS, NIAID, NCI
Roger C. L. Guillemin, U.S.A., and Andrew V. Schally, U.S.A. (shared with R. S. Yalow, U.S.A.) Physiology or Medicine 1977 NIDDK, NICHD, DRR, NIGMS
D. Carleton Gajdusek, U.S.A., and Baruch S. Blumberg, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1976 NINDS, NHLBI, NCI
William N. Lipscomb, U.S.A Chemistry 1976 NIGMS, DRG
David Baltimore, U.S.A., Renato Dulbecco, U.S.A., and Howard M. Temin, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1975 NIAID, NCI
Albert Claude, Belgium, George E. Palade, U.S.A., and Christian de Duve, Belgium Physiology or Medicine 1974 NCI, NHLBI, NICHD, NIGMS, NHLBI, NIA
Gerald M. Edelman, U.S.A. and Rodney R. Porter, U.K. Physiology or Medicine 1972 NIAID, NIDDK, NIAID, NICHD
Christian B. Anfinsen, U.S.A., Stanford Moore, U.S.A., and William H. Stein, U.S.A. Chemistry 1972 NHLBI, NIDDK, NIGMS, NINDS
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., U.S.A Physiology or Medicine 1971 NIGMS, NHLBI, NIDDK
Julius Axelrod, U.S.A., and Ulf von Euler, Sweden (shared with B. Katz, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 1970 NHLBI, NIMH, NINDS
Luis Leloir, Argentina Chemistry 1970 NIGMS, NIAID
Max Delbruck, U.S.A., Alfred D. Hershey, U.S.A., and Salvador Luria, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1969 NIAID, NIGMS, NCI, NICHD
Robert W. Holley, U.S.A., H. Gobind Khorana, U.S.A., and Marshall W. Nirenberg, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1968 NIGMS, NCI, NIAID, NHLBI
Lars Onsager, U.S.A. Chemistry 1968 NIGMS
Haldan K. Hartline, U.S.A., and George Wald, U.S.A. (shared with R. Granit, Sweden) Physiology or Medicine 1967 NINDS, NEI
Charles B. Huggins, U.S.A. (shared with P. Rous, U.S.A.) Physiology or Medicine 1966 NCI, NIDDK, NIGMS
Jacques L. Monod, France (shared with F. Jacob and A. Lwoff, France) Physiology or Medicine 1965 NIAID
Robert B. Woodward, U.S.A. Chemistry 1965 NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG, NIDDK
Konrad Bloch, U.S.A. (shared with F. Lynen, Germany) Physiology or Medicine 1964 NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG
James D. Watson, U.S.A. (shared with F. H. C. Crick and M. H. F. Wilkins, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 1962 NIGMS, NIDDK, NCI, DRR, NIAID
John C. Kendrew, U.K. (shared with M. F. Perutz, U.K.) Chemistry 1962 NIDDK
Melvin Calvin, U.S.A. Chemistry 1961 DRG, NCI
Peter B. Medawar, U.K. (shared with F. M. Burnet, Australia) Physiology or Medicine 1960 NIAID
Arthur Kornberg, U.S.A., and Severo Ochoa, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1959 NIGMS, NIAID, NCI, NIDDK, NIA, DRG
George W. Beadle, U.S.A., Joshua Lederberg, U.S.A., and Edward L. Tatum, U.S.A. Physiology or Medicine 1958 NIGMS, NHLBI, NIAID, NINDS, NICHD, DRR, NCI
Dickinson W. Richards, Jr., U.S.A. (shared with A. Cournand, U.S.A., and W. Forssmann, Germany) Physiology or Medicine 1956 NIDDK, NCI, NHLBI, NIGMS
Vincent du Vigneaud, U.S.A. Chemistry 1955 NHLBI, NCI, NIGMS, DRG
Thomas H. Weller, U.S.A. (shared with J. F. Enders and F. C. Robbins, U.S.A.) Physiology or Medicine 1954 NIAID, NIGMS
Linus C. Pauling, U.S.A. Chemistry 1954 NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG, NIAID, NCI
Fritz A. Lipmann, U.S.A. (shared with H. A. Krebs, U.K.) Physiology or Medicine 1953 NIGMS, NCI
Philip S. Hench, U.S.A. (shared with E. C. Kendall, U.S.A., and T. Reichstein, Switzerland) Physiology or Medicine 1950 NIGMS
E. O. Lawrence, U.S.A. Physics 1939 NCI

NIH Scientists

1994 - Dr. Martin Rodbell, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Dr. G. Alfred Gilman of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. Dr. Rodbell dis- covered in 1970 that signal transmission requires a cellular molecule called GTP. In 1977 Dr. Gillman identified the proteins to which GTP binds and named them "G proteins." They are a family of proteins bound to the cell surface membranes that serve as intermediaries between incoming signals and cellular proteins that respond to these signals. Dr. Rodbell conducted this research while an intramural scientist with the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (now NIDDK).

1976 - Dr. D. Carleton Gajdusek, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg, of the Institute for Cancer Research in Philadelphia. They won the award for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. Dr. Blumberg was at NIH (with the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases) in the 1960s, and did part of his prizewinning research at NIH.

1972 - Dr. Christian B. Anfinsen (formerly with the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work "on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation." Dr. Anfinsen provided the first clue to the structure of ribonuclease by demonstrating that it is comprised of a single polypeptide chain. He and his colleagues at Rockefeller University (with whom he shared the prize) demonstrated that the information required to fold the polypeptide chain of ribonuclease into the specific three-dimensional form of the active enzyme resides in the sequence of amino acids. Therefore, it became clear that this protein could be synthesized in the laboratory by joining the proper amino acids in the correct order and then allowing the chain of amino acids to fold spontaneously. This led to the first synthesis of an enzyme from chemicals in the laboratory. Such studies are basic to an understanding of normal life processes as well as of inherited metabolic diseases.

1970 - Dr. Julius Axelrod, National Institute of Mental Health, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with two scientists from England and Sweden for independent research into the chemistry of nerve transmission. The three were cited for their "discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanisms for their storage, release and inactivation." SpecOctober 21, 2014he action of the nerve transmitter, noradrenaline. He also demonstrated that some antidepressant drugs act by preventing the reuptake of noradrenaline and thus prolong its action in the brain.

1968 - Dr. Marshall W. Nirenberg, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the key to deciphering the genetic code. Dr. Nirenberg and two other researchers, working independently, with whom he shared the prize, made major advances in understanding the chemical mechanisms by which genetic language or information is translated into various proteins that determine the nature and characteristics of all living things. Dr. Nirenberg was the first NIH Nobelist and also the first federal scientist to receive a Nobel Prize.

This page last reviewed on October 21, 2014

Social Media Links