NIH Funds Nine Centers to Speed Application
of Powerful New Research Approach:
Roadmap Network Will Produce Chemical Probes to Explore
New Targets for Therapies
The funding of a network of nine centers across the country
that will use high tech screening methods to identify small molecules
for use as probes to investigate the diverse functions of cells
was announced today by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The network — funded at approximately $70 million annually over the four-year production phase — is designed to increase the pace of development and use of chemical (small molecule) probes, which have become invaluable tools for exploring biologic processes and for developing new therapies for disease.
"This network marks a new era in academic and government research as NIH-funded scientists will have access to the tools for rapidly screening hundreds of thousands of small molecules against many novel biological assays at lower costs than previously possible," said Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., NIH director. "The information generated by this network will be important to developing a greater understanding of biology and its complexity, while hopefully discovering novel approaches to therapies and prevention, especially for rare or neglected diseases."
As genomics research reveals more about the enormous complexity of cell function, new approaches are needed to understand the details. Small molecule probes can be minutely targeted to interact with one site of a cell’s chemical machinery, thus providing information on a specific step in a cascade of cell functions. In some cases, small molecules may have activity that gives them potential for eventual therapeutic as well as research use; or, they may identify targets in the cell for the design of future therapies.
The Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network is the second phase
of a program begun in 2004 as part of the Molecular
Libraries and Imaging Initiative (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/molecularlibraries/)
under NIH’s Roadmap for Medical Research. Using assays — laboratory
tests used to screen for specific types of probes — solicited by NIH from the
research community, the network will screen a library of more than 300,000
small molecules maintained in the program’s Molecular
Libraries Small Molecule Repository (http://mlsmr.glpg.com/MLSMR_HomePage/).
The repository is located in San Francisco at Biofocus DPI, a drug discovery
research company. Data generated by the screening is available to the public
through PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/),
a database created and managed by NIH’s National Library of Medicine.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) will co-administer the network on behalf of NIH. Program funding will transition out of the Roadmap in years five and six.
"Discoveries from genomics and proteomics have given us thousands of new proteins but little understanding of what many of them do in the cell," said Thomas R. Insel, M.D., NIMH director. "This screening effort will identify small molecules that influence these newly discovered proteins, allowing us to understand how many of them function. And for proteins involved in disease states, today’s small molecule could be tomorrow’s medication."
"This collaborative effort will give academic and government researchers in the global research community robust chemical tools to understand the cellular mechanisms of disease and a much more vigorous way to identify useful biological targets," said NHGRI Acting Director, Alan E. Guttmacher, M.D.
The nine institutions funded as part of the network are:
- The Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics, La Jolla, Calif.; John Reed, Principal
- Broad Institute Comprehensive Screening Center, Cambridge, Mass.;
Stuart Schreiber, Principal Investigator
- National Institutes of Health Chemical
Genomics Center, Bethesda, Md.; Christopher Austin, Principal Investigator
- The Comprehensive Center for Chemical Probe Discovery and Optimization at Scripps,
La Jolla, Calif.; Hugh Rosen, Principal Investigator
Specialized Screening Centers:
- Johns Hopkins Ion Channel Center, Baltimore; Min Li, Principal Investigator
- Southern Research Specialized Biocontainment Screening Center, Birmingham,
Ala.; Colleen Jonsson, Principal Investigator
- University of New Mexico Center
for Molecular Discovery, Albuquerque, N.M.; Larry Sklar, Principal Investigator
Specialized Chemistry Centers:
University of Kansas Specialized Chemistry Center, Lawrence, Kan.; Jeffrey
Aube, Principal Investigator The Vanderbilt Specialized Chemistry Center for
Accelerated Probe Development, Nashville, Tenn.; Craig Lindsley, Principal
NHGRI led the Human Genome Project for the NIH, and now moves forward into the genomic era with research aimed at improving human health and fighting disease. Additional information about NHGRI can be found at its Web site, http://www.genome.gov
The mission of NIMH, a component of NIH, is to transform the understanding and
treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving the
way for prevention, recovery and cure. More information is available at the NIMH
Web site, http://www.nimh.nih.gov.
The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, launched in 2004, is a series of initiatives designed to address fundamental knowledge gaps, develop transformative tools and technologies, and/or foster innovative approaches to complex problems. Funded through the NIH Common Fund, these programs cut across the missions of individual NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs) and are intended to accelerate the translation of research to improvements in public health. The Office of Portfolio Analysis and Strategic Initiatives, in collaboration with all NIH ICs, oversees programs funded by the Common Fund. Additional information about the NIH Roadmap and Common Fund can be found at www.nihroadmap.nih.gov.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation's
Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and
Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting
and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research,
and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both
common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and
its programs, visit www.nih.gov.