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National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) supports basic research that increases understanding of biological processes and lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention. NIGMS-funded scientists investigate how living systems work at a range of levels, from molecules and cells to tissues, whole organisms and populations. The Institute also supports research in certain clinical areas, primarily those that affect multiple organ systems. To assure the vitality and continued productivity of the research enterprise, NIGMS provides leadership in training the next generation of scientists, in enhancing the diversity of the scientific workforce, and in developing research capacities throughout the country.
NIGMS was established in 1962. In Fiscal Year 2016, the Institute's budget was $2.5 billion. The vast majority of this money funds grants to scientists at universities, medical schools, hospitals and other research institutions throughout the country. At any given time, NIGMS supports more than 3,000 investigators and 4,500 research grants—over 11 percent of the total number of research grants funded by NIH. Additionally, NIGMS supports approximately 26.3 percent of the NRSA trainees who receive assistance from NIH.
The Institute places great emphasis on supporting investigator-initiated research grants that unleash the creativity and energy of investigators across the country to solve important biomedical problems. In addition, the Institute provides funding to a limited number of research centers that support critical research resources used by the scientific community or that build research capacities in states that have historically received low levels of NIH funding.
NIGMS research training programs reflect the interdisciplinary nature of biomedical research and emphasize experiences that cut across fields of inquiry. NIGMS recognizes a compelling need to promote diversity in the biomedical research workforce and is committed to galvanizing efforts in this arena by recruiting talented researchers from all groups and supporting quality educational and training environments in a wide range of scientific areas. Certain NIGMS training programs address areas in which there are particularly critical needs. One of these, the Medical Scientist Training Program, produces investigators who hold both M.D. and Ph.D. degree and are thus well trained in both basic and clinical science. NIGMS also has a Postdoctoral Research Associate Program, in which postdoctoral scientists receive training in NIH laboratories.
NIGMS houses the NIH Office of Emergency Care Research, which coordinates and fosters basic, clinical and transitional emergency care research and research training across NIH.
July 16, 1958—The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) approved establishment of the Division of General Medical Sciences.
October 17, 1962—Congress authorized establishment of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.
January 30, 1963—The HEW Secretary approved establishment of NIGMS.
October 8, 1963—The National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council held its first meeting.
October 13, 1982—NIGMS celebrated its 20th anniversary by establishing the DeWitt Stetten, Jr., Lecture. Dr. David S. Hogness, Stanford University, gave the first lecture.
October 1, 1989—Administration of the Minority Biomedical Research Support Program was transferred to NIGMS from the NIH Division of Research Resources.
December 23, 2011—Administration of the Institutional Development Award program was transferred to NIGMS from the former National Center for Research Resources, along with NCRR’s biomedical technology programs.
July 31, 2012—NIH creates the Office of Emergency Care Research (OECR), a focal point for basic, clinical and translational emergency care research and training across NIH. OECR is located in NIGMS.
May 4, 2015—NIGMS establishes the Center for Research Capacity Building.
October 17, 1962—Public Law 87-838 authorized the U.S. Surgeon General to establish an institute to conduct and support research and research training in the general or basic medical sciences and in related natural or behavioral sciences that have significance for two or more other institutes of NIH, or that lie outside the general areas of responsibility of any other institute.
Jon R. Lorsch, Ph.D., became the director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences in August 2013.
In this position, Lorsch oversees the Institute's $2.5 billion budget, which supports basic research that increases understanding of biological processes and lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
NIGMS supports more than 3,000 investigators and 4,500 research grants—over 11 percent of the total number of research grants funded by NIH as a whole. Additionally, NIGMS supports approximately 26.3 percent of the NRSA trainees who receive assistance from NIH.
Lorsch came to NIGMS from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he was a professor in the Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry. He joined the Johns Hopkins faculty in 1999 and became a full professor in 2009.
A leader in RNA biology, Lorsch studies the initiation of translation, a major step in controlling how genes are expressed. When this process goes awry, viral infection, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer can result. To dissect the mechanics of translation initiation, Lorsch and collaborators developed a yeast-based system and a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods. The work also has led to efforts to control translation initiation through chemical reagents, such as drugs. Lorsch continues this research as a tenured investigator in the NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
NIGMS supported Lorsch's research from 2000-2013. He also received grants from the NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Institute of Mental Health, as well as from other funding organizations.
Lorsch is as passionate about education as he is about research. During his tenure at Johns Hopkins, he helped reform the curricula for graduate and medical education, spearheaded the development of the Center for Innovation in Graduate Biomedical Education, and launched a program offering summer research experiences to local high school students, many from groups that are underrepresented in the biomedical sciences. In addition, he advised dozens of undergraduate and graduate students and postdoctoral fellows.
Lorsch received a B.A. in chemistry from Swarthmore College in 1990 and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Harvard University in 1995, where he worked in the laboratory of Jack Szostak, Ph.D. He conducted postdoctoral research at Stanford University in the laboratory of Daniel Herschlag, Ph.D.
Lorsch is the author of more than 70 peer-reviewed research articles, book chapters and other papers. He has also been the editor of six volumes of Methods in Enzymology and has been a reviewer for numerous scientific journals. He is the author on two awarded U.S. patents. His honors include six teaching awards from Johns Hopkins.
Lorsch’s other activities have included membership on the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology’s mentoring committee, the RNA Society’s board of directors and NIH review committees.
Since joining NIH, he has taken on several leadership roles, including serving on the NIH Scientific Data Council, Administrative Data Council and Extramural Activities Working Group, which he co-chairs.
|Name||In Office from||To|
|Clinton C. Powell||July 1962||July 1964|
|Frederick L. Stone||August 1964||April 1970|
|DeWitt Stetten, Jr.||October 1970||August 1974|
|Ruth L. Kirschstein||September 1974||July 1993|
|Marvin Cassman (Acting)||July 1993||August 1996|
|Marvin Cassman||August 1996||May 2002|
|Judith H. Greenberg (Acting)||May 2002||November 2003|
|Jeremy M. Berg||November 2003||July 2011|
|Judith H. Greenberg (Acting)||July 2011||July 2013|
|Jon R. Lorsch, Ph.D.||August 2013||Present|
Division of Biomedical Technology, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology
The Division of Biomedical Technology, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology (BBCB) advances basic biomedical research by supporting:
- The development, use and dissemination of computational tools, sophisticated quantitative approaches and unique experimental technologies to enable studies of biological, behavioral and social systems that underlie health and disease.
- The creation of innovative methods to store, organize, share, visualize, integrate and analyze vast quantities of biological data.
- Training opportunities in the quantitative and data sciences to prepare the next generation of biomedical researchers.
The long-term goals of the division are to leverage data and technologies to answer fundamental biological questions, to develop a more robust computing infrastructure for the biomedical research community and to promote and facilitate the development and use of new computational and experimental technologies in biomedical research. The division has two components: the Biomedical Technology Branch and the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Branch.
This branch supports research to discover, create and develop innovative technologies for biomedical research. Technology development often requires multidisciplinary and team-oriented approaches and can lead to new or improved instrument development that has broad application to medical research. Areas of interest include computational infrastructure, molecular imaging and dynamics, and technologies to elucidate structural and functional biology.
Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
This branch supports bioinformatics and computational approaches that join biology with the computer sciences, engineering, mathematics, biostatistics and physics as well as general approaches that have the potential for broad applicability and usage by investigators with support from across NIH and other agencies. The branch also leads the NIH Biomedical Information Science and Technology Initiative and collaborates with other parts of NIH on the Big Data to Knowledge initiative as well as with the National Science Foundation to support programs in mathematical biology.
The branch provides support through a network for modeling infectious disease agents and programs in systems biology, mathematical biology, investigator-initiated research grants, behavioral and social modeling and small business grants.
Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics
The Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics seeks greater understanding of the structure and function of cells, cellular components and the biological macromolecules that make up these components. The research it supports ranges from studies of single molecules to work in structural genomics and proteomics. The long-term goal of the division is to better understand the basic structures and processes in living cells. This information may lay the foundation for ways to prevent, treat and cure diseases that result from disturbed or abnormal cellular activity. The division has two components: the Biophysics Branch and the Cell Biology Branch.
This branch supports studies in the areas of biophysics, a discipline that uses techniques derived from the physical sciences to examine the structures and properties of biological molecules. Areas of emphasis in biophysical research include the determination of the structures of proteins and nucleic acids; studies of the physical features that determine macromolecular conformation; the analysis of macromolecular interactions and of ligand-macromolecular interactions; bioinformatics as it relates to protein and nucleic acid structure; the development of physical methodology for the analysis of molecular structure; and the development and use of proteomics and analytical techniques to characterize macromolecules and macromolecular systems; and the development and use of theoretical methods to investigate biological systems. Other research interests include the development and refinement of instruments needed to conduct research in the areas described above. These include nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and other scattering techniques, mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy, and other forms of microscopy. This branch also supports the development of new bioanalytical methods and biomaterials.
Cell Biology Branch
This branch supports general studies on the molecular and biochemical activities of cells and subcellular components, as well as on the role of cellular dysfunction in disease. Emphasis is placed on research with applications to a range of cell types, model systems or disease states, as well as research that does not fall within the disease-oriented mission of one of the other NIH institutes or centers. Representative studies include those on plasma and intracellular membranes, receptors and signal transduction mechanisms; the structure and function of the cytoskeleton; cell motility; the regulation of protein and membrane synthesis and the activation of cell growth; subcellular organelles; cell division; and lipid biochemistry.
Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology
The Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology supports studies directed toward gaining a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie inheritance, gene expression and development. The results of these studies form the foundation for advances in diagnosing, preventing, treating and curing a wide variety of diseases. Most of the projects supported by the division make use of model organisms, which speed advances in understanding human biological processes. The division consists of the Genetic Mechanisms Branch and the Developmental and Cellular Processes Branch.
Genetic Mechanisms Branch
This branch focuses on DNA and on the flow of information from genetic material (DNA or RNA) to protein. The branch supports studies on the mechanisms and regulation of basic cellular processes including DNA and RNA replication, DNA recombination and repair, transcription and function of coding and noncoding RNA, RNA processing, and protein synthesis. Studies that investigate interactions among these processes are also supported. Consistent with its focus on DNA, the branch supports studies of population genetics, evolution and the genetic basis of human biology. The emphasis is on the general principles governing these processes rather than on the expression of specific genes in relation to organismal phenotypes or disease.
Developmental and Cellular Processes Branch
This branch focuses on the genetic and biochemical pathways that cells utilize in development and in normal physiological processes. The research supported by the branch spans the spectrum from the genetic basis of development and cell function to biochemical signaling pathways that underlie normal cell physiology. The branch supports studies of cell cycle control; mechanisms of cell death; regulation of cell growth, differentiation and homeostasis; adaptive responses to stress and nutrients; stem cell biology; microbial symbiotic relationships and community ecology; developmental genetics; neurogenetics and the genetics of behavior; and chromosome structure and epigenetic regulation of gene expression.
Along with its research and research training activities, the division supports the Human Genetic Cell Repository, which maintains and distributes cell lines and DNA samples—from people with and without genetic disorders—to research scientists.
Division of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry
The Division of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry supports a broad spectrum of research and research training aimed at improving the molecular-level understanding of fundamental biological processes and discovering approaches to their control. Research supported by the division takes a multifaceted approach to problems in pharmacology, physiology, biochemistry and biorelated chemistry that are either very basic in nature or that have implications for more than one disease area. The goals of supported research include an improved understanding of drug action and mechanisms of anesthesia; pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics and mechanisms underlying individual responses to drugs; new methods and targets for drug discovery; advances in natural products synthesis; an enhanced understanding of biological catalysis; a greater knowledge of metabolic regulation and fundamental physiological processes; and the integration and application of basic physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical research to clinical issues in anesthesia, clinical pharmacology and trauma and burn injury. Among the division's leading areas of interest are quantitative and systems pharmacology, improved synthesis and availability of complex carbohydrates, and genomic studies of natural product biosynthesis. There are two components in this division: the Biochemistry and Biorelated Chemistry Branch and the Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences Branch.
Biochemistry and Biorelated Chemistry Branch
This branch supports basic research in areas of biochemistry, such as enzyme catalysis and regulation, bioenergetics and redox biochemistry and glycoconjugates. It also supports research in areas of biorelated chemistry, such as organic synthesis and methodology, as well as bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry. Examples of biochemical investigations include studies of the chemical basis of the regulation and catalytic properties of enzymes, intermediary metabolism, the chemical and physical properties of the cellular systems for electron transport and energy transduction, the biochemical roles of normal and mutated mitochondrial proteins, and the biosynthesis and structure of carbohydrate-containing macromolecules. Examples of chemical investigations include the development of strategies for natural products synthesis, studies of the structure and function of small molecules, the chemistry of metal ions in biological systems, the development of novel medicinal agents or mimics of macromolecular function, and the creation of new synthetic methodologies. The branch also supports studies in biotechnology. This work focuses on the development of biological catalysts, including living organisms, for the production of useful chemical compounds, medicinal or diagnostic agents or probes of biological phenomena.
Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences Branch
This branch supports research in pharmacology, anesthesiology and the physiological sciences. Studies range from the molecular to the organismal level, and can be clinical in nature. In the pharmacological sciences and anesthesiology, important areas being studied are the effects of drugs on the body and the body's effects on drugs, as well as how these effects vary from individual to individual. This includes traditional investigations of the absorption, transport, distribution, metabolism, biotransformation and excretion of drugs, as well as drug delivery strategies and determinants of bioavailability. It also includes a newer focus on pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, linking phenotype to genotype in drug action. Understanding the mechanisms of drug interactions with receptors and signal transduction mechanisms is another major focus of this section. This includes studies of soluble and membrane-bound receptors and channels, secondary and tertiary messenger systems, mediator molecules and their regulation and pharmacological manipulation. Examples of studies in the physiological sciences include basic and clinical investigations directed toward improving understanding of the total body response to injury, including the biochemical and physiological changes induced by trauma. Research supported in this section includes studies on the etiology of post-traumatic sepsis and the mechanisms of immunosuppression, wound healing and hypermetabolism following injury. This section also supports research in basic molecular immunobiology, which focuses on using cells of the immune system to study fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity
The Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity supports programs that foster research training and the development of a strong and diverse biomedical research workforce. The division funds research training, student development and career development activities through a variety of programs. In addition, it supports the NIH Common Fund initiative, Enhancing the Diversity of the NIH-Funded Workforce. The division has two components: the Undergraduate and Predoctoral Training Branch and the Postdoctoral Training Branch.
Undergraduate and Predoctoral Training
This branch supports research training, student development and fellowship programs for undergraduate and predoctoral students, including individuals from populations that are underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce.
This branch supports research training, fellowships and career development programs at the postdoctoral and early stage clinical investigator levels. It also supports studies on interventions that promote student interest in research careers, and it provides supplements to research grants that promote scientific workforce diversity by offering research experiences for students at all levels.
Division of Extramural Activities
The Division of Extramural Activities is responsible for the grant-related activities of the Institute, including the receipt, referral and advisory council review of applications as well as grant funding and management. Its staff maintains an overview of the Institute's scientific and financial status and advises the NIGMS director and other key staff on policy matters and on the planning, development and scientific administration of Institute research and training programs. The division recommends budget allocations for the various NIGMS programs. It also acts as a liaison with other NIH components for activities relating to grant application assignments and foreign grants.
Center for Research Capacity Building
The Center for Research Capacity Building supports research, research training, faculty development and research infrastructure improvements in states that historically have not received significant levels of research funding from NIH. It also supports faculty research development at institutions that have a historical mission focused on serving students from underrepresented groups, and conducts a science education program designed to improve life science literacy. CRCB is composed of four programs: Institutional Development Award (IDeA), Science Education Partnership Awards (SEPA), Support of Competitive Research (SCORE) and Native American Research Centers for Health (NARCH).
This program broadens the geographic distribution of NIH funding for biomedical research. IDeA fosters health-related research and enhances the competitiveness of investigators at institutions located in states in which the aggregate success rate for applications to NIH has historically been low. The program also increases the competitiveness of investigators by supporting faculty development and research infrastructure enhancement at institutions in 23 states and Puerto Rico.
This program is designed to improve life science literacy throughout the nation through innovative educational programs. SEPA-supported projects create partnerships among biomedical and clinical researchers and K-12 teachers and schools, museums and science centers, media experts, and other educational organizations.
This program seeks to increase the research competitiveness of faculty at institutions that have a historical mission focused on serving students from underrepresented groups. SCORE supports faculty research development at three formative stages of an investigator’s research career.
This initiative supports partnerships between American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes or tribally based organizations and institutions that conduct intensive academic-level biomedical research. NARCH supports research, research training, and faculty and infrastructure development to meet the needs of AI/AN communities.
This page last reviewed on March 2, 2017