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Thursday, June 11, 2015
NIH Common Fund launches physical activity research program
Program aims to identify molecules that contribute to a variety of health benefits.
It is well-known that exercise is good for you, but how exactly does physical activity improve the function of different tissues and organs in the body? What molecules underlie how physical activity is translated into better health? The National Institutes of Health’s Common Fund launched a program that aims to catalogue extensively the biological molecules that are affected by physical activity in people, identify some of the key molecules that underlie the systemic effects of physical activity, and characterize the functions of these key molecules.
This program, Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity in Humans, is the largest targeted NIH investment of funds into the mechanisms of how physical activity improves health and prevents disease. Through the program, investigators at research institutions across the United States will receive about $170 million over five years, pending availability of funds.
“...researchers and clinicians may one day be able to define optimal physical activity recommendations for people at various stages of life”
“This program will lay the foundation for our understanding of how physical activity affects the human body, and ultimately, advance our understanding of how activity improves and preserves health,” said NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. “Armed with this knowledge, researchers and clinicians may one day be able to define optimal physical activity recommendations for people at various stages of life, as well as develop precisely targeted regimens for individuals with particular health needs.”
This program will include studies of different kinds of physical activity in humans, aimed at identifying biological molecules that change in response to exercise and that may play a role in mediating the effects of physical activity. Complementary studies of physical activity in animals will provide additional insights into the function of the molecular transducers of physical activity.
To ensure that the results from this program will apply to people broadly, participants in the study will range from children to older adults; include a variety of fitness levels, racial, and ethnic groups; and be equally distributed between males and females. Throughout the course of this program, active and sedentary volunteers will perform resistance or aerobic exercises. Blood, urine, and other tissue samples will be collected before and at several time points after the activities. These samples will be extensively analyzed using high-throughput technologies that allow rapid identification of many different biological molecules from large numbers of samples. This analysis will enable characterization of a variety of molecules that change following exercise and may mediate the effects of physical activity.
Additionally, some previously inactive volunteers will undergo a defined period of exercise training. Before and after training, investigators will assess participants’ responses to the training by measuring variables such as lung capacity, glucose tolerance, heart rate, body mass index, basal metabolic rate, muscle and fat mass, cognitive ability, and emotional wellbeing. Tissues samples from these participants will also be collected and analyzed. This aspect of the study will enable researchers to determine which biological molecules correlate with improved fitness resulting from repeated activity.
In addition to the human studies, investigators will conduct comparable studies in animals to gather information about critical tissues affected by exercise that are not easily studied in humans, such as lung, liver, brain, and heart. The animal studies could also provide valuable insights into the effects of physical activity over a longer timeframe. Data from the animals, combined with the information collected from the volunteers in the human study, will allow researchers to pinpoint how the molecular changes due to physical activity exert their effects and which tissues are targeted by specific molecules. Data from all activities within the program will comprise a molecular map of activity responses that will be made widely available to the scientific community, facilitating investigator-initiated studies and catalyzing the field of physical activity research.
“By capitalizing on recent technological breakthroughs in complex, high-throughput sample analysis, this program will enable a novel understanding of how physical activity contributes to a person’s health at a molecular level,” said James M. Anderson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the NIH Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, which houses the Common Fund. “The knowledge generated through this program will inform studies of almost every organ and tissue in the human body, and will provide a critical resource for large numbers of researchers investigating the effects of physical activity in humans.”
Funding opportunity announcements for this program are expected later this year. For more program information, please visit http://commonfund.nih.gov/MolecularTransducers. This program is supported by the NIH Common Fund and is managed by a trans-agency Working Group representing multiple NIH Institutes and Centers, led by the Office of the Director, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), and the National Institute on Aging (NIA).
The mission of the NIAMS, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' National Institutes of Health, is to support research into the causes, treatment and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. For more information about the NIAMS, call the information clearinghouse at (301) 495-4484 or (877) 22-NIAMS (free call) or visit the NIAMS website at http://www.niams.nih.gov.
The NIDDK, a component of the NIH, conducts and supports research on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutrition and obesity; and kidney, urologic and hematologic diseases. Spanning the full spectrum of medicine and afflicting people of all ages and ethnic groups, these diseases encompass some of the most common, severe and disabling conditions affecting Americans. For more information about the NIDDK and its programs, see http://www.niddk.nih.gov.
The NIA leads the federal government effort conducting and supporting research on aging and the health and well-being of older people. The Institute’s broad scientific program seeks to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of life. The NIA sponsors the Go4Life exercise and physical activity campaign for older adults. For more information on research, aging, and health, go to http://www.nia.nih.gov.
The NIH Common Fund encourages collaboration and supports a series of exceptionally high-impact, trans-NIH programs. Common Fund programs are designed to pursue major opportunities and gaps in biomedical research that no single NIH Institute could tackle alone, but that the agency as a whole can address to make the biggest impact possible on the progress of medical research. Additional information about the NIH Common Fund can be found at http://commonfund.nih.gov.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
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